Survive Global Water Shortages
In 1747, changing weather patterns, aggravated by deforestation and overgrazing, resulted in Cape Verde's first recorded drought. In the 100 years from 1773, three droughts killed some 100,000 people - more than 40 of the population each time. It was only the beginning of a cycle that lasted well into the 20th century. At the same time, the island's
Arguably the biggest threat to public health in India is inadequate access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation. With the population set to double by 2050, agricultural, industrial and domestic water usage are all expected to spiral, despite government policies designed to control water use. Ground water is being removed at an uncontrolled rate, causing an alarming drop in water-table levels and supplies of drinking water. Simultaneously, contamination from industry is rendering ground water unsafe to drink across the country. The soft drink manufacturer Coca-Cola faced accusations that it was selling drinks containing unsafe levels of pesticides, as well as allegations over water shortages near its plants, and of farmland being polluted with industrial chemicals. Although cleared of claims about the safety of its drinks, Coco-Cola has yet to be held to account on any of the other allegations. Rivers are also affected by runoff, industrial pollution and sewage contamination -...
In the cracks and folds of the scorched sandstone peaks of the Bynguano Range, north-east of Broken Hill, the permanent water supply made this area a virtual oasis for Aboriginal people. Even in the worst drought, they could hunt rock wallabies and goannas, and gather berries and fruit. It was here that the totemic figures of hunting tales and Creation stories were inscribed on the rock. The finest examples of rock art are found in the Mutawintji Historic Site, a restricted area that can be visited on a guided tour with Aboriginal Discovery Rangers.
The drought that has gripped the southeastern states of Australia is an ongoing concern. Even if substantial rains fall, the problems with the city and the state's water supply look like they are here to stay. Mandatory water restrictions are in place for residents, who are forbidden to use hoses or sprinklers to water their gardens or wash their cars. Do your bit by being conscious of your water usage while in the city. Simple measures like
A spectacular drive along the Lake Morris Rd (off Reservoir Rd, Kanimbla) takes you on a narrow 16km winding road high above Cairns to Lake Morris (S 8am-6pm). Also known as the Copperlode Dam, this is the city's fresh water supply. There are a few short walks around the dam and a caf ( 4055 7414 S 8.30am-4.30pm Tue-Sun) overlooking the lake.
An ancient city along the old Silk Road and the flourishing centre of a trade network which stretched from the Mediterranean to China, Otrar was famed for its huge library and massive fortress boasting a unique water supply system which helped the city repulse many sieges over the century. But in the 1 3th century, the governor killed trade envoys sent by Ghengis Khan and the Mongol sent a huge army to extract revenge by laying waste to the city as part of a new Central Asian campaign. Visitors to the city can see the mud-brick ruins of Otrar's main citadel, the central town district, suburbs and earthen fortifications.
Until the 18th century most residents of Edinburgh lived along and beneath the Royal Mile and Cowgate. The old abandoned cellars and basements, which lacked any proper water supply, daylight or ventilation, were once centres of domestic life and industry. Under these conditions, cholera, typhus and smallpox were common. Mary King's Close, under the City Chambers, is one of the most famous of these areas -its inhabitants were all killed by the plague around 1645.
DOC has a huge network of backcountry huts (more than 950) in NZ's national and forest parks. There are 'Great Walk' category huts (fees payable year-round), 'Serviced Huts' (mattress-equipped bunks or sleeping platforms, water supply, heating, toilets and sometimes cooking facilities), 'Standard Huts' (no cooking equipment or heating) and 'Basic Huts' (just a shed ). Details about the services in every hut can be found on the DOC website. Backcountry hut fees per adult per night range from free to 45, with tickets bought in advance at DOC visitor centres. Children under 10 can use huts free of charge 11 - to 17-year-olds are charged half-price. If you DOC also manages 250 vehicle-accessible camping grounds. The most basic of these ('basic' sites) are free 'standard' and 'serviced' grounds cost between 3 and 14 per adult per night. Serviced grounds have full facilities (flush toilets, tap water, showers and picnic tables) they may also have barbecues, a kitchen and a laundry. Standard...
This deep, Y-shaped valley encompassed by a small, 184-hectare natural reserve ( 864 8652 admission US 4), 23km south of Managua and visited by 10,000 people visit each year, was originally protected to safeguard almost one-third of Managua's water supply. Then some astute soul noticed that these aquifers are exceptional. El Brujo (The Wizard) is a waterfall that seems to disappear underground, separated by a 400m cliff from El Chocoyero (Place of Parakeets), the less immediately impressive cascade. But show up at around 3pm and you'll see bands of parakeets come screaming home for their evening gossip.
And Little Chouk Point also have stunning views and if you're visiting Echo Point, be sure to give it a yell. Stop at Charlotte Lake on the way back from Echo Point, but don't go for a swim -this is the town's main water supply. You can reach the valley below One Tree Hill down the path known as Shivaji's Ladder, allegedly trod upon by the Maratha leader himself.
CAT's free information service deals with tens of thousands inquiries each year and is often the first port of call for people seeking data and advice. CAT also offers an annual programme of residential courses, taught by academics and other experts with many years' practical experience. Topics include renewable energy, ecological building, sewage treatment, water supply, organic gardening, composting. They have their own energy from renewable sources, water supply and sewage recycling systems.
One of the ecological gemstones of the area is FUDEBIOL (Foundation for Development of Las Quebradas Biological Center) a few kilometers from San Isidro. The 750-hectare 1,853-acre preserve was established to protect San Isidro's water supply on the banks of the R o Quebradas. Community-run, it offers wonderful hiking trails and a butterfly garden, picnic area and camping (US 6). Ask at CIPROTUR.
With the discovery of gold it became clear to the Western Australia (WA) government that the large-scale extraction of the metal, the state's most important industry, was unlikely to continue in the Kalgoorlie goldfields without a reliable water supply. Stop-gap measures, such as huge condensation plants that produced distilled water from salt lakes, or bores that pumped brackish water from beneath the earth, provided temporary relief.
Beyond the hut the track continues to climb, soon reaching a fork junction bear left (southeast) here. The right-hand fork leads to Lake Adelaide, your return route. The trees become thinner and stunted and, 20 to 30 minutes beyond Trappers Hut, the track descends to cross a creek above a small lake. The track then undulates across a wonderful landscape of rocky outcrops and small lakes, known as Solomons Jewels, surrounded by stunted snow gum and pencil pine. In the distance King Davids Peak is visible, its precipitous eastern face dropping abruptly to Herods Gate. After descending gently to cross the marshy valley of Wild Dog Creek on boardwalks, a short climb leads to the camping ground, a series of wooden tent platforms and associated toilet and water supply.
During the monsoon period (July to August), and for a month or so following the monsoon, the park should be home to vast colonies of birds that have come here to breed and feed on the fertile wetland. However, since it lost most of its water supply in 2003 fewer and fewer migratory birds have returned to Keoladeo. With the promise of water being delivered by pipe, it is hoped that the park will return to its days of glory when it was a frenzy of feathered activity.
Mosques need to have a water supply so that worshippers can perform the wudu or ablutions required before they begin praying. Neighbourhood mosques in Dubai are visited five times a day for prayers, with worshippers travelling further afield to larger mosques for Friday prayers.
Doubles in detached bungalows set in green grounds(there are a few larger, regular rooms as well for the same price). The water supply has long since been cut off, but staff bring you hot-water buckets for washing, and there's a restaurant with garden seating. It's about 1.5km from the market area, along the Tunduru road.
'Organic' is a buzzword in Greece too. Greece has one of the healthiest dietary regimes around couple that with local organic products and you are onto a culinary winner. Consider choosing your restaurants on the basis of their locally grown food products - and tell the owners -they will all get the message in good time. When you're thirsty, don't cart one of those dastardly plastic water botties with you. Who will ultimately dispose of it Drink from a water fountain or from a tap. (Note, although the water in Greece is generally fine, many islands have questionable, limited or no water supply, so it's is best to check with the locals there.) For more details on environmental issues, see p82. Shop sensibly too look at labels and buy only locally made products. Don't just make a beeline for the most obviously popular spots everyone else will be doing the same thing. Select your destination with some inventiveness. You'll probably have a better time.
On that occasion, Gian Lorenzo Bernini was to asked to be in charge of the works and the octagonal basin was entirely redone and elevated. Four double seashells were added to collect the water gushing from four bronze bocche di lupo (wolf mouths), belonging to the old fountain. By the end of the 17th century, Bernini's shells had already deteriorated and were substituted with new ones designed by the architect Carlo Fontana. Even so, the fountain you see today is the result of a total reconstruction dating from 1873 that maintained the 17th century aspect but utilized gray bardiglio marble instead of the traditional travertine. On the octagonal basin, four inscriptions sum up the fountain's complex history. Along Via della Scala, before reaching Porta Settimiana, turn into Via Garibaldi that will take you to the top of the Janiculum hill to see the famous Fontanone which is actually the monumental fountain placed at the end of the conduits of the Traiano Paolo Aqueduct....
Water shortages are a problem throughout Spain. A severe drought in the past years has left Catalan dams at a low ebb and, in 2008, Barcelona began to import boadoads of water from as far off as Almer a (southern Spain) and Marseille (France). Heavy rains in May alleviated the situation but water waste remains an issue. You can do your part, for
You'll notice that the red-rock cliff walls above the waters of Lake Powell are no longer red but are instead coated with what looks like a layer of white soap scum. Those are calcium carbonate deposits left on the rock over the past few years as an ongoing drought has caused the lake level to drop more than 130 feet. The bathtub ring is the least of Lake Powell's worries. The reservoir currently is at less than half its capacity and hasn't been this low in more than 30 years. Some experts believe that if the drought continues, the lake could go completely dry by 2007. Because Arizona, Nevada, and California all rely on the water from Lake Powell, a continued drought could have serious consequences for Phoenix, Tucson, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles.
Most Aussies would be hard put to name a single settlement, river, or mountain within the Kimberley, so rarely visited and sparsely inhabited is this wilderness. This is an ancient land of red, rocky plateaus stretching for thousands of kilometers, jungly ravines, endless bush, crocodile-infested wetlands, surreal-looking boab trees with trunks shaped like bottles, lily-filled rock pools, lonely island-strewn coastline, droughts in winter, and floods in summer. The dry, spreading scenery might call to mind Africa or India. In the Dry, the area's biggest river, the Fitzroy, is empty, but in the Wet, its swollen banks are second only to the Amazon in the volume of water that surges to the sea. Aqua and scarlet are two colors that will hit you in the eye in the Kimberley a luminous aqua for the sea, and the fiery scarlet of the fine soil hereabouts called pindan. The area is famous for Wandjina-style Aboriginal rock art depicting people with circular hair-dos that look more than a little...
Although the PAICV nationalised most industries and instituted a one-party state, it managed to limit corruption, instituting remarkably successful health and education programs. Unfortunately, independence did not solve the problem of drought, and in 1985 disaster struck again. However, this time the USA and Portugal contributed 85 of the food deficit their aid continues in a country that produces only about 20 of its food supply.
However, Frelimo's socialist programme proved unrealistic, and by 1983 the country was almost bankrupt. The crisis was compounded by a disastrous three-year drought and by South African and Rhodesian moves to destabilise Mozambique because the African National Congress (ANC) and Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) - both fighting for majority rule - had bases there.
Generally, the dry winter months are the most comfortable for travelling, though in truth Zimbabwe has a beautiful climate all year round, and given the chance of drought, even the wettest wet season isn't a great hindrance. In winter night-time temperatures can fall below freezing, while in summer daytime temperatures can climb to 35 C, but may be tempered by afternoon thunderstorms. Winter is the best time for wildlife viewing because animals tend to congregate around a diminishing number of water holes, and are therefore easier to glimpse. At the end of a drought in 2005, herds of 300 elephants were seen at Hwange National Park. Obviously this is an incredible sight, though it can also be a stressful one, as many animals don't gain access to the scarce water and die.
Since the 180-sq-km park's creation in 1961, the population of lesser and greater flamingos has risen and fallen with the soda lake's erratic water levels. When the lake dried up in 1962 (happy first birthday ), the population plummeted as it later did in the 1970s, when heavy rainfall diluted the lake's salinity affecting the lesser flamingo's food source (blue-green algae). Over much of the last decade healthy water levels have seen flamingo numbers blossom again. If future droughts or flooding make them fly the coop again, you'll probably find them at Lake Bogoria.
Rainbow Bridge is accessible only by boat or on foot (a hike of 13 miles minimum) going by boat is by far the more popular method. Lake Powell Resorts and Marinas (& 800 528-6154 or 928 645-2433 www.visitlakepowell.com) offers half-day ( 83 for adults, 55 for children) and full-day ( 106 for adults, 69 for children) tours that not only get you to Rainbow Bridge in comfort, but also cruise through some of the most spectacular scenery on earth. The full-day tours include a box lunch on a beach and a bit more exploring after visiting Rainbow Bridge. Currently, because the lake's water level is so low from years of drought, the boat must stop about 1 mile from Rainbow Bridge, so if you aren't able to walk a mile, you won't even be able to see the sandstone arch.
The Kew area has several historic ruins, including the interesting Wades Green Plantation, granted to a British Loyalist by King George III. The owners struggled to grow sisal and Sea Island cotton until drought, hurricanes and bugs drove them out. The plantation lasted a mere 25 years the owners abandoned their slaves and left.
A wonderful and bizarre story lies behind the name of this place. The monastery and its original little church were founded in AD 327 by the first Byzantine governor of Cyprus, Kalokeros, and patronised by St Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. At the time, the Akrotiri Peninsula and indeed the whole of Cyprus was in the grip of a severe drought and was overrun with poisonous snakes, so building a monastery was fraught with practical difficulties. A large shipment
Construction of the Glen Canyon Dam came about despite the angry outcry of many who felt that this canyon was even more beautiful than the Grand Canyon and should be preserved in its natural state. Preservationists lost the battle, and construction of the dam began in 1960, with completion in 1963. It took another 17 years for Lake Powell to fill to capacity. Today, the lake is a watery powerboat playground, and houseboats and water-skiers cruise where birds and waterfalls once filled the canyon with their songs and sounds. These days most people seem to agree that Lake Powell is as amazing a sight as the Grand Canyon, and it draws almost as many visitors each year as its downriver neighbor. In the past few years, however, Lake Powell has lost some of its luster as a prolonged drought in the Southwest has caused the lake's water level to drop nearly 100 feet. Although this has left a bathtub-ring effect on the shores of the lake, it has exposed wide expanses of beach in the Wahweap...
Construction of the Glen Canyon Dam came about despite the angry outcry of many who felt that this canyon was even more beautiful than the Grand Canyon and should be preserved in its natural state. Preservationists lost the battle, and construction of the dam began in 1960, with completion in 1963. It took another 17 years for Lake Powell to fill to capacity. Today, the lake is a watery powerboat playground, and houseboats and water-skiers cruise where birds and waterfalls once filled the canyon with their songs and sounds. These days most people seem to agree that Lake Powell is as amazing a sight as the Grand Canyon, and it draws almost as many visitors each year as its downriver neighbor. In the past few years, however, Lake Powell has lost some of its luster as a prolonged drought in the Southwest has caused the lake's water level to drop more than 130 feet. Although this has left a bathtub-ring effect on the shores of the lake, it has exposed wide expanses of beach in the Wahweap...
Today the fence is maintained by the Department of Agriculture, and used as a baiting corridor for wild dogs, to contain feral goats and to halt emu migrations. Every 10 years or so, dependent on seasonal conditions (eg drought), emus migrate en masse in search of food. At these times, the hapless birds are said to be in plague proportions, and threaten to damage crops and farm-fences, with up to 70,000 emus pressed up against the fence line.
The pristine serenity of Canyonlands has been protected for more than a century, largely because early white settlers deemed the land totally worthless. The Anasazi had lived and farmed the region until 1200, when they mysteriously left, perhaps because of drought, tribal warfare, or the arrival of hostile strangers.
Some nomadic Tuareg openly wonder whether this will be the last generation of their people who live a traditional life. Older Tuareg lament the loss of traditional ways and you'll come across Tuareg men who know how to drive a 4WD but for whom the camel is a relative mystery. Many Tuareg have been forced to move into the cities of the Sahara and further afield by government policies, droughts and decades of war and rebellion.
Chaco's decline after 1V2 centuries of success coincided with a drought in the San Juan Basin between 1130 and 1180, but anthropologists still argue vehemently over why the site was abandoned. Many believe that an influx of outsiders may have brought new and troubling influences. One controversial theory maintains that cannibalism existed at Chaco, practiced either by the ancestral Puebloans themselves or by invaders, such as the Toltecs of Mexico. Most, however, contend that for some reason the Chacoan people left gradually, and today their descendants live among the region's Pueblo people. A visitor center, with a bookstore and a museum that shows films on ancestral Puebloan culture, is open daily year-round. Gallo Campground ( 10 per night) has 49 sites with central toilets, nonpotable water, and no shade. Drinking water is available only at the visitor center.
House, archaeologists have found the remains of an earlier pit house dating from A.D. 693. Although most of the Ancestral Puebloan cliff dwellings were abandoned sometime after a drought began in 1276, Antelope House had already been abandoned by 1260, possibly because of damage caused by flooding. Across the wash from Antelope House, an ancient tomb, known as the Tomb of the Weaver, was discovered by archaeologists in the 1920s. The tomb contained the well-preserved body of an old man wrapped in a blanket of golden eagle feathers and accompanied by cornmeal, shelled and husked corn, pine nuts, beans, salt, and thick skeins of cotton. Also visible from this overlook is Navajo Fortress, a red-sandstone butte that the Navajo once used as a refuge from attackers. A steep trail once lead to the top of Navajo Fortress, and by using log ladders that could be pulled up into the refuge, the Navajo were able to escape their attackers.
Before you decide to explore the Algerian Sahara by 4WD, it is worth considering the environmental cost of what is known as the Toyotarisation' of the Sahara. With their large wheels, 4WDs break up the surface of the desert which is then scattered into the air by strong winds. By one estimate, the annual generation of dust has increased by 1000 in North Africa in the last fifty years. And in case you thought that your 4WD tracks across the sands would soon be erased by the winds, remember that tracks from WWII vehicles are still visible in the Libyan Desert six decades after the cessation of hostilities. Airborne dust is a primary cause of drought far more than it is a consequence of it, as it shields the earth's surface from sunlight and hinders cloud formation.
Early Australian settlers razed massive tracts of land, at the cost of the Aboriginal inhabitants, for sheep and later cattle grazing. In the 1930s, the spread of the European rabbit and drought turned much of the country into a dustbowl - a state from which it has yet to recover. The fragile, shallow soils continue to degrade as those with the knowledge of sustainable use desperately try to educate the users of the land and the politicians. These issues of land and water management, coastal run-off effects and overexploitation of natural resources are looming large as massive issues that need to be addressed. Add to these issues the ageing population, and Australia can be seen to be on the cusp of massive changes.
In response, the Department of Conservation (DOC) has implemented a booking system for its Great Walks to avoid track overcrowding and minimise environmental damage. The NZ tourism industry is embracing all things 'eco', while regionally, eateries and farmers markets selling local produce present sustainable options. Regardless, hardcore environmentalists claim the industry and government aren't moving fast enough. Drought and climate change are fanning the flames
With a total ban on hunting imposed in 1977, the KWS was free to concentrate solely on conserving Kenya's wildlife. This came just in time, as the 1970s and '80s were marred by a shocking amount of poaching linked to the drought in Somalia, which drove hordes of poachers across the border into Kenya. A staggering number of Kenya's
Yet in a 2006 report, Unesco urged that a permanent backup source of water for the park be established, as drought (along with unchecked cattle grazing) had caused serious damage. The previous year, a government attempt to divert water from the nearby Pan-chana dam came up against strong opposition from local villagers. Admission entitles you to one entrance per day if you want to spend the day inside, get your hotel to provide a packed lunch. Carry drinking water, as bird-watching is thirsty work.
The deserts are a real hit-and-miss affair as far as wildlife is concerned. If visiting in a drought year, all you might see are dusty plains, the odd mob of kangaroos and emus, and a few struggling trees. Return after big rains, however, and you'll encounter something close to a Garden of Eden. Fields of white and gold daisies stretch endlessly into the distance, perfuming the air. The salt lakes fill with fresh water, and millions of water birds - pelicans, stilts, shags and gulls - can be seen feeding on the superabundant fish and insect life. It all seems like a mirage, and like a mirage it will vanish as the land dries out, only to spring to life again in a few years or a decade's time. For a more reliable bird spectacular, Kakadu is well worth a look, especially towards the end of the Dry season around November.
Costa Rica is the most modern and sanitary country of the Central American isthmus, so it presents few health worries. No shots are required, but if you're traveling on to more remote sections of Central America - such as Guatemala, Panama, El Salvador or Honduras - a vaccination against hepatitis A is strongly recommended. Contaminated water is the common source a shot of immune globulin gives adequate temporary protection. A doctor friend of ours, who has vacationed in Central America for the past 25 years, recommends a hepatitis vaccine to all travelers regardless of where they go in the world - Cartago or Copenhagen.
In 2000 it was designated a Ramsar site, establishing it as a wetland of international importance. While lesser flamingo numbers have dropped significantly now that Lake Nakuru has recovered from earlier droughts, this reserve (0722-377252 PO Box 64, Marigat adult child KSh1500 200) is still a fascinating place to visit and a world away from any other Rift Valley lake.
Mexico's fabulously varied environment is home to countless biological riches. Yet its forests are shrinking and many of its cities and rivers are terribly polluted. Large-scale tourism development can destroy coastal wetlands, strain water resources and overwhelm sewage systems. But as a traveler your interaction can be beneficial. Ask questions about the local environmental situation, and give your business to hotels, guides and tour operators with avowedly sustainable practices. Instead of ripping up the terrain and scaring every living creature on an ATV convoy, take a birding or kayaking trip with a guide who wants to show you nature without disturbing it.
Mexico City is an ecological tragedy. What was once a beautiful highland valley with abundant water and forests now has some of the least breathable air on the planet and only scattered pockets of greenery. It faces the real prospect of serious water shortages in the not too distant future.
Yet China's polluted rise is not just raising eyebrows abroad, and Beijing is keenly aware that the land faces accelerated desertification, growing water shortages, shrinking glaciers, increasingly acidic rain and a progressively polluted environment if left unchecked. According to official estimates, China's pollution woes cost the country US 200 billion peryear, equivalent to 10 of its GDP (gross domestic product). Unless drastic action is taken, by 2032 China's emissions could be double the combined output of the world's industrial nations (including the US, Japan and the EU).
Oahu's balmy weather allows camping year-round. You can expect rain any time of the year, but in general, winter is the rainy season and summer is the dry season. You should be also prepared for insects (have a good repellent for mosquitoes), water purification (boiling, filtration, or iodine crystals), and sun protection (sunscreen, a hat, and a long-sleeve shirt).
Mexico City's booming population and sinking infrastructure are a couple of the factors that have combined to create serious sanitation problems that can affect food and water. Most restaurants frequented by travelers are perfectly safe, but be highly selective when eating food from street vendors. If a street stand or restaurant looks clean and well run, the vendor is clean and healthy and follows sanitation rules, and the place is busy with lots of customers, then the food is probably safe. Generally speaking, vegetables and fruit should be washed with purified water or peeled, and dairy products that might contain unpasteurized milk should be avoided. Tap water in Mexico City is generally not safe to drink. Vigorous boiling for three minutes is the most effective means of water purification.
Mubarak the Great laid down the foundations of a modern state. Under his reign, government welfare programmes provided for public schools and medical services. In 1912, postal and telegraphic services were established, and water-purification equipment was imported for the American Mission Hospital. According to British surveys from this era, Kuwait City numbered 35,000 people, with 3000 permanent residents, 500 shops and three schools, and nearly 700 pearling boats employing 10,000 men.
If you're going long distances, you'll have to bring either a water filter or a water purification agent like iodine (most people opt for the latter to keep weight down). Get in shape long before coming to Borneo and start slowly - try a day hike before setting out on a longer trek.
This comparatively isolated community kept pace with every modern convenience telephones in 1883, electric lights in 1884 (only 2 years after New York City), and a water system in 1887. Typically, the town should have busted with the crash of silver prices in 1893. But unlike many Western towns, Silver City did not become a picturesque memory. It capitalized on its high, dry climate to become today's county seat and trade center. Copper mining and processing are still the major industry.
A sloping scallop shell, the Campo was first laid out in the 1100s on the site of the Roman forum. The herringbone Siena brick pavement is divided by white marble lines into nine sections representing the city's medieval ruling body, the Council of Nine. The Campo's tilt, fan shape, and structure are all a calibrated part of the city's ancient water system and underground canal network. At the top of the Campo is a poor 19th-century replica ofJacopo della Quercia's 14th-century masterpiece fountain, the Fonte Gaia (S( . Some of the very badly eroded original panels are kept in the Palazzo Pubblico (see below).
Off into the myriad passages of the Mersey water system, or go up the road a short way to the national park. The dining room is the big old summer camp sort, where good, solid, family-style meals are served to guests daily. Open from mid-June to mid-September. During winter they have two heated cabins available for rent. PO Box 521, Annapolis Royal, NS B0S 1A0, n 902 5322617 or 902 532-7360 off-season. ( , including breakfast and dinner)
In packing for your trip, keep in mind that this is a land of extremes, with an often-unforgiving climate and terrain. Those planning to hike or bike should take more drinking water containers than they think they'll need experts recommend at least 1 gallon of water per person per day on the trail as well as good-quality sunblock, hats and other protective clothing, and sunglasses with ultraviolet protection.
Conata Picnic Area is on Conata Road, just south of Dillon Pass and the Badlands Loop Road in the North Unit. It has tables, trash cans, and pit toilets. Camping and fires are not allowed, and there is no drinking water available. North Unit, about 7 miles northwest of the Ben Reifel Visitor Center. It also has tables and pit toilets, but no drinking water. Camping and fires are not allowed.
Facilities are scarce outside Alice, so bring food (a picnic perhaps, or meat to barbecue), drinking water, and a full gas tank. Leaded, unleaded, and diesel fuel is sold at Glen Helen Resort, Hermannsburg, and Ross River Resort. Wear walking shoes. Many of the water holes dry up too much to be good for swimming those at Ellery Creek, Ormiston Gorge, and Glen Helen are the most permanent. Being spring-fed, they can be intensely cold, so take only short dips to avoid cramping and hypothermia, don't swim alone, and be careful of underwater snags. Don't wear sunscreen because it pollutes drinking water for native animals.
There are four main National Parks camping grounds (adult child 5.40 free). These are at Merl, near the Border Store at Ubirr Muirella Park, several kilometres south of the Nourlangie turn-off and then 6km off Kakadu Hwy Mardugal, just off the highway 1.5km south of the Cooinda turn-off and Gunlom, 37km down a dirt road that branches off Kakadu Hwy near the southern entry gate. Only Mardugal is open during the Wet. All have pit fires, hot showers, flushing toilets, drinking water and a generator zone. These are the only sites that are really suitable for caravans. See the individual sections for more details. National Parks provide 14 more basic camping grounds around the park at which there is no fee. They have fireplaces, some have pit toilets and at all of them you'll need to bring your own drinking water. To camp away from these grounds you will need a permit from the Bowali Visitor Centre.
This national park is a wilderness wonderland. Miles of trails not only lace the lava, but also cross deserts, rainforests, beaches, and, in winter, snow at 13,650 feet. Trail maps (highly recommended) are sold at park headquarters. Check conditions before you head out. Come prepared for sun, rain, and hard wind any time of year. Always wear sunscreen and bring plenty of drinking water.
You can contract giardiasis (a parasitic infection of the small intestine) or bilharziasis (an infestation by parasitic flatworms) by swimming in or drinking water from contaminated fresh-water rivers and streams. Giardiasis can cause cramps, abdominal pain, and diarrhea symptoms often last a week, though in some cases may persist for years. Bilharziasis can cause high fever, intestinal problems, or dermatitis, though symptoms may not appear for months or even years after infection. Both are treated with antibiotics.
Mount Jefferson rises powerfully from the surrounding countryside and is the center of a 540-acre state park, where naturalists and hikers come to enjoy the scenery and the large variety of plant life rhododendrons, red maples, tulip trees, yellow birch and aspens. The mountain gained notoriety during the Civil War era when it became a beacon and refuge for runaway slaves. A cave on the mountain provided shelter for them on their way north. There's also a picnic area with tables, several hiking trails, restrooms and drinking water.
Mountain camping on a small campground in the heart of northern Georgia's backcountry. Facilities include 25 tent and trailer sites with water and electric hookups, flush toilets, hot showers and fresh drinking water. There's also a dumping station, five miles ofhiking trails, three playgrounds, a nine-hole golfcourse, a
Campground, open April to October, has 88 sites with drinking water, modern restrooms and access to the ranger talks at campfire circles. The Echo Park Campground, on the Colorado side, has 17 sites and is a more rugged experience, for 8 per night. Call 435-781-7700 for more camping information.
Heat exhaustion occurs following excessive fluid loss with inadequate replacement of fluids and salt. Symptoms include headache, dizziness and tiredness. Dehydration is already happening by the time you feel thirsty -aim to drink sufficient water to produce pale, diluted urine. To treat heat exhaustion, replace lost fluids by drinking water and or fruit juice, and cool the body with cold water and fans. Treat salt loss with salty fluids such as soup or Bovril, or add a little more table salt to foods than usual.
This is one of the most beautiful beach-camping areas in the state, with a mile-long, gold-sand beach on Oahu's Windward Coast (see Beaches, earlier in this chapter, for details). There are two areas for tent camping. Facilities include picnic tables, rest-rooms, showers, sinks, drinking water, and a phone. For your safety, the park gate is closed between 6 45pm and 7am vehicles cannot enter or exit during those hours. Groceries and gas are available in Laie and Kahuku, each less than a mile away.
This isolated peak in a 12km-long range is 20km west of town. The source of much of Chuxiong's drinking water, it's a picturesque place famous for the lush red colour of its ubiquitous camellia trees, the cultivation of which dates back more than a millennium (one tree in the park is in fact over 600 years old). The prime minister of the kingdom of Dali used the mountains as a retreat. When he retired, he built nearly 100 temples, pavilions and nunneries, but earthquakes and wars have left only one - Ziding Si.
You'll find flush toilets, drinking water, public telephones, and fire grates. In addition to the campgrounds in the preserve, 30 acres of camping space are available in a privately owned campground in Nipton, in the open desert beyond the town's historic B&B inn (double rates are about 70, hot breakfast included). Other amenities include hot tubs, showers, drinking water, a Wi-Fi network, a restaurant (great barbecue and burgers), two cabin tents ( 60 per night, breakfast included), and four RV hookups ( 30). For information, call 760 856-2335 or visit www.nipton. com.
Goodell Creek Campground, just west of Newhalem, is popular with paddlers and anglers. It has a good view of the Picket Range from just across the highway. Drinking water is not available from late fall through winter. A raft and kayak launch adjacent to the campground is available for whitewater runs down the Skagit River. This campground is open year-round. Hozomeen Campground is a more primitive campground, with no garbage facilities, at the northern tip of Ross Lake. Drinking water is provided.
Backcountry camping is permitted in most areas of the monument with a permit (free at press time), available at the Interagency office in Escalante and the BLM office in Kanab. There are also two designated campgrounds. Calf Creek Recreation Area, about 15 miles northeast of the town of Escalante on Utah 12, has 13 sites and a picnic area. Open year-round, the tree-shaded campground often fills by 10am in summer. Located in a scenic, steep canyon along Calf Creek, surrounded by high rock walls, the campground has a volleyball court and offers access to an interpretive hiking trail (see Hiking, Mountain Biking & Horseback Riding, above). It has drinking water and restrooms with flush toilets, but no showers, RV hookups or dump station, or garbage removal. In addition, from November through March, water is turned off and only vault toilets are available. To reach the campground, vehicles ford a shallow creek. The campground is not recommended for vehicles over 25 feet long. Campsites...
Facilities are fairly basic, a day use fee of 4 per person per visit is required, and it is 4 per person per day to use the Sea Camp Campground. It has restrooms, cold water showers and drinking water, with campfires permitted. The charge is 2 for backcountry camping, where only drinking water is available and campfires are not allowed.
Hidden Creek Forest camping on a small campground, the main feature of which is a small creek that's dry more often than it is wet. It's also a popular spot for hiking and picnicking. Facilities are sparse. There are 16 sites, but no flush toilets or showers. Vault toilets and fresh drinking water are available, and there are several nice, quiet hiking trails. No fee. Pocket Forest camping in a small wooded glen that surrounds a large spring and a small creek. A nice, quiet, well-developed campground with lots of possibilities for hiking and picnicking. There are 27 sites, flush toilets and fresh drinking water, but no showers.
On the South Rim, the wide, lush Bright Angel Trail is the least difficult canyon trail for day hikers. It is well maintained, has shade and drinking water, and is less steep than other canyon trails. A few well-prepared hikers will be comfortable traveling 6 miles one-way to the end of the Plateau Point Trail , which departs from the Tonto Trail just north of where the Tonto crosses the Bright Angel Trail. If you go any farther on a day hike, there's a good chance that you'll run out of energy and or daylight while climbing back to the rim.
CORRIDOR TRAILS When descending into the canyon for the first time, even experienced backpackers should consider one of the three corridor trails, North Kaibab, South Kaibab, or Bright Angel, discussed in detail below. Well maintained and easy to follow, these are regularly patrolled by park rangers. Each has at least one emergency phone and pit toilet. Drinking water is available at several sources along both the Bright Angel and the North Kaibab trails, but not on the South Kaibab. (Some of these sources are seasonal.) Check at the Backcountry Information Center for current water availability before starting your hike. While hiking the corridor trails, you can spend your nights at Bright Angel, Cottonwood, or Indian Garden campgrounds, each of which has a ranger station, running water (seasonal at Cottonwood), and toilets. WILDERNESS TRAILS By hiking on corridor trails, you can acclimate yourself to the conditions in the canyon without having to negotiate the boulder-strewn and...
Those looking for stupendous panoramic vistas should consider this strenuous trail, which begins as a relatively gentle walk through a forest of pine and becomes considerably steeper as it reaches the tree line. Eventually you find yourself on the summit, at an elevation of 13,063 feet, the second-highest point in Nevada. During its 2,900-foot ascent, the trail passes through several plant communities, including forests of Englemann spruce and pine, before climbing above the tree line. This is generally an all-day hike, and rangers advise starting early so you're off the summit by the time afternoon thunderstorms appear. Hikers are also advised to carry plenty of drinking water, extra clothing, and rain gear.
On Queen Ka'ahumanu Highway (Hwy. 19), 2.6 miles north of Keahole Airport Separatee, unpaved 1.5 mile access roads from highway lead to Mahai'ula and Kua Bay sections of the park Mahai'ula section has a sandy beach and dune offering opportunities for swimming and beach-related activities. A picnic area with tables and portable toilets are available. A 4.5-mile hike north through this wilderness park on the historic coastal trail, Ala Kahakai, leads to Kua Bay. Midway, a hike to the summit of Pu'u Ku'ili, a 342-foot high cinder cone, offers an excellent view of the coastline. Dry and hot with no drinking water. Kua Bay section at north end of park offers beach-related activities. (1,642.5 acres)
From the Gare de l'Est, take the Rue des Recollets past the Jardin Villemin to the tree-lined Canal St-Martin. Napoleon had the canal built to bring drinking water to Paris, but it was mainly used for transporting building materials. Today its nine locks between the Seine and the Bassin de la Villette are mostly used for sightseeing cruises. The Canal is at its best on warm summer weekends, when Parisians of all ages come here to stroll, picnic and even fish along the calm waters.
Boating is available on Parksville Lake, with public boat ramps at King Slough on the western side of the lake, Parksville Lake to the east, and at East Parksville Lake. There is a 1 usage fee and restrooms can be found at all three locations. Parksville Lake has two man-made beaches for swimming, one at Mac Point and one at Parksville Beach. Drinking water and restrooms are available at both locations. There is a usage fee of 2 per car at Mac Point and 2 at Parksville Beach.
Morganton Point Recreation Area Just across the lake to the east of Lake Blue Ridge Recreation Area, Morganton Point offers similar lakeside facilities. There are 37 sites with access to a comfort station flush toilets and fresh drinking water. Deep Hole Mountain and riverside camping on the banks of the Toccoa River near the Cooper Creek Scenic Area. It's a very small campground, quite remote, and not as popular as many wilderness sites, but a very pretty spot with opportunities for hiking and good river fishing. Just eight campsites with access to flush toilets and fresh drinking water. Cooper Creek Scenic Area & Recreation Area Riverside and forest camping in a remote recreation area with plenty to see and do. The campground is adjacent to the beautiful Cooper Creek Scenic Area, a 1,240-acre tract of forest with a number of hiking trails, some of which follow the creek and its tributaries. There are 17 campsites with access to flush toilets and fresh drinking water, but no hot...
A ranger station, with exhibits, restrooms, and drinking water, is located at the Square Tower Site, in the Utah section of the monument, the most impressive and best preserved of the sites. Near the Square Tower Site, the Hovenweep Campground, with 30 sites, is open year-round. Sites are fairly small most appropriate for tents or small pickup truck campers but a few sites can accommodate RVs up to 25 feet long. The campground has flush toilets, drinking water, picnic tables, and fire pits, but no showers or RV hookups. Cost is 10 per night reservations are not accepted, but the campground rarely fills.
Always keep to the 4WD track as going off-road causes soil erosion, a significant environmental problem in Australia. Leave gates as you found them. Obtain permission from the owners before venturing onto private station (ranch) roads. On an extended trip or in remote areas, carry 5 liters (1.3 gal.) of drinking water per person per day (dehydration occurs fast in the Australian heat) enough food to last 3 or 4 days more than you think you will need a first-aid kit spare fuel a jack and two spare tires spare fan belts, radiator hoses, and air-conditioner hoses a tow rope and a good map that marks all gas stations. In seriously remote areas outside the scope of this book, carry a high-frequency and CB radio. (A cellphone may not work in the Outback.) Advise a friend, your hotel manager, the local tourist bureau, or a police station of your route and your expected time of return or arrival at your destination.
The city produces colossal quantities of trash, but you can slightly reduce the flow. Instead of buying multiple bottles of purified water, refill the first one from the drinking-water cooler provided by some hotels. Juice stands want to give you styrofoam but bring your own cup or bottle and have them fill it. Buy a shopping bag (available in an array of tantalizing colors at the nearest market) to put your souvenirs or snacks into. Despite the voluminous rain that falls upon the Valle de M xico, the city's underground aquifers are not being replenished fast enough to meet the voracious demand for drinking water, and some 30 of the water supply is lost through leaks in the pipe network. You can avoid contributing to the impending crisis by being conscious of your water use while in the city. Don't run taps unnecessarily - for instance, when shaving or brushing your teeth - and cut down on your shower time.
The Olorgasailie campsite (camping KSh200, ban-das s d KSh500 800) is not a bad place to stay for the night you'll need to bring your own food, bedding and drinking water. It can get pretty windy out here, but you'll certainly feel like you're properly in the bush, and it's likely you'll have the place to yourself.
Zombitse, the most accessible section, extends across the main road northeast of the small town of Sakaraha, 75km from Ilakaka. There are two walking circuits in Zombitse, with several more under development here and in the other parts of the park. Permits (Ar 15,000 for three days), guides (Ar20,000) and information can be obtained at the Angap offices in Sakaraha or Toliara. There's a camp site (Ar5000) at Zombitse, but no facilities. Make sure to bring all the drinking water you will need. It's 150km northeast of Toliara along the RN7. The area is best reached by private vehicle
At a minimum, bring clothing appropriate for cold and wet weather, including a hat and gloves, as well as drinking water (unless you like shelling out 500 per half-litre) and snacks. If you're climbing at night, bring a torch (flashlight) or headlamp, and spare batteries. Descending the mountain is much harder on the knees than ascending bending your knees and using your thigh muscles can help.
The fairyland setting at this beautiful and lit de-visited park (admission free) is nothing short of fantastic. Moss-encrusted roots and rocks, dense rainforest and rattan vines provide a delicious backdrop for swimming in pools beneath multilevel waterfalls. Primitive trails meander along (and at times through) the falls, climbing level after level, and seem to go on forever - you could easily get a full day's hiking in without walking along the same path twice. Bring plenty of drinking water - although the shade and the falls moderate the temperature, the humidity in the park is quite high.
The hills around McLeod Ganj are scarred by piles of abandoned plastic bottles that will persist in the environment for hundreds of years before breaking down into a polluting chemical dust. Give the countryside a chance and refill your drinking water bottle for Rs 5 to Rs 10 at one of the filtered-water stations around McLeod Ganj. There's one at LHA, one at the Environmental Education Centre and one at the Dogga Centre.
Andrews Cove A very small campground in the forest beside a beautiful, crystal-clear mountain stream. Just 10 campsites, flush toilets, fresh drinking water, hiking trails and opportunities for trout fishing. No showers. Lake Russell Lakeside camping with great views over Chenocetah Mountain and a large, grassy beach. One of northern Georgia's best developed campgrounds, and one of its busiest. There are 42 campsites, a comfort station with flush toilets, hot showers and fresh drinking water. There's also a large group campsite (reservations only). Lots to see and do with access to a number of nearby hiking trails, opportunities for boating, swimming and fishing. Altogether a very pleasant campground. For group camp reservations, s 706-754-6221.
Murray Branch Recreation Area, six miles downriver from Hot Springs, is a good place for fishing and canoeing, or just spending a little quiet time out in the open air. Facilities include restrooms, drinking water, tables and grills, and a couple ofpicnic shelters suitable for group or family outings. There's also a nice, easy one-mile loop trail that offers a magnificent view of the French Broad River and the surrounding valley. restrooms, drinking water, and campsites. Rocky Bluff is a fee area campers pay 5 per night.
A nice campground in one of the best areas. Facilities include 46 sites, drinking water, flush toilets, but no showers. Open from mid-April through October. Boone Fork 16 campsites one of the smallest campgrounds in the Pisgah National Forest and facilities to match its size. Drinking water and vault toilets, but no showers. Open April through October. No fee. Carolina Hemlocks Not far from Black Mountain Campground, this is also an attractive facility, but not quite as large. Drinking water 32 sites flush toilets no showers. Open from mid-April through October. Rocky Bluff Recreation Area Facilities include 30 sites, flush toilets and drinking water, but no showers. While the focus at Rocky Bluff is on camping, there are also a number of other outdoor activities, including an easy one-mile trail that loops through the forest giving access to a variety of vegetation. There's also a second trail, an easy three-fourths of a mile, that will take you along the banks of the creek to some...
Tallulah River Forest camping in an area of old-growth timber, rugged scenery and tumbling waters with lots of hiking and fishing. The campground is small, secluded and never too busy. There are 17 campsites no water, electric hookups or showers flush toilets fresh drinking water. Trout fishing is a popular activity. boating, fishing and picnicking. Facilities include 80 campsites with water and electrical hookups, a comfort station with flush toilets, fresh drinking water, hot showers, four picnic sites, several hiking trails, and a boat ramp.
You'll finish your Big Room tour at the elevators near the Underground Rest Area, so pick up a sandwich there or take the elevator up to the surface, where you can dine in the restaurant at the visitor center or drive out for a picnic lunch at Rattlesnake Springs. (Rattlesnake Springs is a picnic area with tables, grills, drinking water, and restrooms. It's along the access road to Slaughter Canyon Cave.) After lunch, take the King's Palace Guided Tour (for which you wisely purchased tickets earlier). Then walk the nature trail outside the visitor center and drive the 9 4-mile Walnut Canyon Desert Drive. If possible, try to get back to the amphitheater at the cave's Natural Entrance by dusk to see the nightly bat flight (mid-May to Oct only), when thousands of bats leave the cave for a night of insect-hunting.
The Castle of Vilnius was mentioned for the first time in I 323 in the treaty of Gediminas with the city of Riga. At that time the Upper Castle was still made of wood. The exact date when the stone castle was built is unknown. The Upper Castle was built to protect the city from crusaders. At that time, there were few trees and several drinking water springs on the Gediminas Hill.
Lake Conasauga Recreation Area Mountain and lakeside camping at an elevation of more than 3,100 feet, near the top of Grassy Mountain, on Georgia's highest lake. Set among the peaks and forests of the Blue Ridge, this is a beautiful site. It's also very popular. The campground is well developed with 35 sites, a comfort station, flush toilets and fresh drinking water, but no showers. There are three wilderness hiking trails, boat ramps, good fishing, and excellent picnic facilities. Often very busy on summer weekends, and also through the spring and fall.
The Nantahala National Forest is just off Highway 28 near Bryson City. Inside the park are some of the most popular biking trails in the mountains. Four trails, together more than 35 miles of riding, offer a diversity of pedaling moderate to steep climbs and exhilarating downhill dashes on trails that run from smooth to bumpy. Along the way you'll pass through pine forest and hardwood stands. It's a popular area, so try to pick a time when it's less likely to be crowded. If you're interested in camping, the park has plenty to offer more than 40 units, drinking water, showers and even flush toilets. Fishing is available, too.
Lying under Tahiti-like cliffs, with a beautiful gold-sand crescent beach framed by pine-needle casuarina trees, Kahana Bay Beach Park is a place of serene beauty. You can swim, bodysurf, fish, hike, and picnic, or just sit and listen to the trade winds whistle through the beach pines. Only tent and vehicle camping are allowed at this ocean-side oasis. Facilities include restrooms, picnic tables, drinking water, public phones, and a boat-launching ramp. Note The restrooms are located at the north end of the beach, far away from the camping area, and there are no showers.
Every neighbourhood needed its own source of drinking water in the good old days. With bridges few and far between throughout much of the history of the city, it was easier to provide each of the many insulae (blocks or small districts) with its own well than transport water.
Unlike many ancient towns in China, Lijiang does not have a city wall. It is said that the first ruling family of Lijiang, surnamed Mu, prohibited the building of a wall around the old town because drawing a box around the character of mu turned it into the character kun, meaning difficulty, and was therefore not auspicious. What the old town does have, however, is a web of flowing canals fed by the Yuquan springs in today's Black Dragon Pool to the north. These streams often flow into several three-pit wells scattered around the old town with designated pits for drinking, washing vegetables, and washing clothes. You can see such a well at the Baimalong Tan in the south of town. The Yican Quan, for drinking water only, can be found on Mishi Xiang next to the Blue Page Vegetarian Restaurant. The old town used to have several water mills as well, but the only one standing today is a reconstructed water wheel at the old town entrance. In the center of town is Market Square (Siflng Jie),...
Binns' catastrophe is the stroller's good fortune and the towpath alongside the canal is perfect for a walk through the heart of the city. You can join it beside Newcomen Bridge at North Strand Rd, just north of Connolly Station, and follow it to the suburb of Clon-silla and beyond, more than 10km away. The walk is particularly pleasant beyond Binns Bridge in Drumcondra. At the top of Blessing-ton St a large pond, used when the canal also supplied drinking water to the city, attracts water birds.
Visitors are advised to bring drinking water and snacks, since these items are sometimes hard to find. With sun and insects likely to be abundant, sun screen, protective clothing and insect repellent are advised. Insects can make a visit unbearable during the summer months if you are not prepared. Modern comfort stations and drinking water are available at both sites cold-water showers at Flamingo only. Limited groceries and camping supplies may be purchased at the Flamingo Marina Store. Swimming in the park is discouraged. Freshwater ponds have alligators salt water areas are shallow, with mucky bottoms. Underwater visibility is extremely poor and sharks and barracudas abound.
The island is now a part of the South Carolina-Carolinian Biosphere Reserve, and this wonderfully unspoiled environment will now be permanently protected in its primitive state. It is a complex ecological system ofinterdependent animal and plant communities, where wild horses and other wildlife roam freely. Visitors, limited to about 300 a day, enjoy scenes of breathtaking natural beauty, walk deserted beaches beyond the massive sand dunes and, if you're lucky, spot some of those wild horses. As there are no concessions here, no facilities other than restrooms and drinking water, you'll want to take along a picnic lunch there are plenty of places to enjoy it. You should also wear appropriate clothing, considering the weather and the season bug spray and sunscreen are also a good idea.
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