Chekhov Housemuseum

With many of Yalta's attractions a short distance away, the Chekhov House-Museum ( 394 947 www.chekhov.com.ua vul Kirova 112 adult student 15 10uah Sl0am-5pm, last entry 4.30pm Tue-SunJun-Sep, Wed-Sun Sep-May) is the only must-see in town. It's sort of The Cherry Orchard incarnate. Not only did Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) pen that classic play here, the lush garden would appeal to the most horticulturally challenged audience. A long-term tuberculosis sufferer, the great Russian dramatist spent...

Plants

In 2007 there was a heartening, and rare, environmental victory in Ukraine, when some virgin beech forests of the Carpathians were inscribed into Unesco's World Heritage List. With some parts dating back 350 years, these old-growth forests are seen as an outstanding example of undisturbed temperate forests, but like most Carpathian territory, they had been under Mary Mycio's Wormwood pressure from the logging industry. Ten patches of beech (buk), stretching Forest A Natural History 185km from...

Soaring Above Crimea

The Soviet aviation and aerospace industries were born in the hills outside Koktebel, and pa-ragliders still come here to enjoy the thermal uplifts where sea breezes meet sun-drenched, long mountain ridges and steppes beyond. In the 1920s and '30s, aircraft designers Sergey Korolyov, Sergey ilyushin and Oleg Antonov tested gliders on the 180m-tall, 6km-long ridge of Mt Klementyeva (Uzun-Syrt in Tatar). Koktebel was initially called Planerskoye because of this (planer meaning 'glider' in...

Women Travellers

Old-fashioned attitudes - so much for Soviet feminism - still reign in Ukraine. Here, Lonely Planet Publications DIRECTORY' Visas 251 women are a devushka ('miss' or 'young lady') pretty well up until they become a babushka m and retire, and that quaint quirk says it all. The -i upside is that security guards and police who might stop male foreigners (see the boxed text, pi79) consider women harmless and usually let them pass. Hotel staff and train conductors, who are often women themselves,...

My Top Carpathian Spots

Roman Kalyn is a member of GreenJolly, the rap three-piece whose song 'Razom nas bahato' (Together We are Many) became the anthem of the Orange Revolution and Ukraine's 2005 Eurovision entry. A resident of Ivano-Frankivsk, Roman spends a lot of his free time in the Carpathians. Bukovel - Our band name, GreenJolly, means 'sledge' or 'ski' in Ukrainian, and skiing is one of our greatest pleasures. Not many people abroad would think of Ukraine as a skiing destination, but Bukovel is world-class....

Glossary

You may encounter some of the following terms and signs during your travels in Ukraine. A few Russian (R) words are included here the rest are Ukrainian. See also the Language chapter (p268). aeroport - airport apteka - pharmacy avia poshta- airmail avtobus - bus avtomat - automatic ticket machine avtostantsiya, avtovokzal - bus station babushka - literally'grandmother', but used generally in Ukrainian society forall older women bankomat - automated teller machine (ATM) banush - Hutsul...

Sevastopol CebactonOJIB

In a dozen short years, naval Sevastopol has changed enormously. Seeing it overrun with rich Russian tourists today, it's hard to imagine that until 1996 it was closed off to all but official permit-holders. Now Moscow's Black Sea Fleet, which has dominated Sevastopol life for more than two centuries, has been told it has to leave. To the casual observer there's no doubt this port city looks good for Ukraine it's pristine. Whitewashed neoclassical buildings and stone forts parade before a...

The Ukrainian Food Chain

It if ain't broke, don't fix it just open another one. That seems to be the mantra among Ukrainian restaurateurs. For it seems that, when they find a formula that works, they certainly stick to it. This has recently led to the emergence of several dominant restaurant groups. The mega-successful Pizza Celentano (www.pizza-celentano.com) has joined the widespread Kartoplyanoye Khata (www.potatohouse.biz), and a handful of Yapi sushi bars as part of the overarching Egoisty group (www.egoisty.com)....

Beaches

Lots of people do swim at Odesa's crowded, dirty beaches in summer, but that's not really what going to the beach here is about. Rather, it's about strolling dishevelled promenades with a cold beverage and observing beach life, Ukrainian style. Should you choose to swim, exercise caution the Black Sea is notoriously polluted around Odesa (although the local government recently declared the water safe in the wake of cleanup efforts). Closest to the centre is Lanzheron Beach, reachable on foot...

From Lviv To Poland

With budget airlines flying into neighbouring Polish cities, Lviv is a popular transit point in and out of Ukraine. Poland's EU accession and rampant cigarette smuggling have made border delays even longer. There are several routes between Lviv and the Polish airports in Krakow and Rzeszow, and different travellers have different preferences. Some recommend the train to and from the Polish border town of Przemysl, where you can at least sit during the average two- to three-hour waiting time....

Chernivtsi Hephibhi

(8-)0372 (6-digit Nos), (8-)03722 (5-digit Nos) pop 260,000 Chernivtsi is a glorious hotchpotch, a bittersweet ruin that might be smartening itself up in the coming years. Leafy but dishevelled -especially its pavements - it displays the signs of a more elegant past. Its phantasmagori-cal university is not only the best preserved of its many historic buildings - combined with the huge Kalynivsky Market on the city's outskirts, that temple of higher learning is also responsible for this shabby...

Hiking Guides In Crimea

Crimea has some fantastic hiking opportunities but a scarcity of really good topographical maps with marked routes. In addition, a total lack of English signs mean that Westerners will find the going more challenging than usual. If you're still determined to strike out by yourself, read the tips on camping restrictions, registration and mountain beforehand. And remember some areas are officially off-limits (see the boxed text, p60). If you'd prefer to go with a guide, the following are both...

Carpathian National Nature Park

KAPnATCbKHH AU,IOHAJIbHHH PHHOAHHH nAPK This is the heart of the Carpathians and Ukraine's largest national park. However, it's a very different sort of national park - industrial logging occurs here, for example. Only about a quarter of the area is completely protected, but that hasn't detracted too much from the natural beauty of the place .yet. Founded in 1980, the Carpathian National Nature Park (CNNP) covers 503 sq km of wooded mountains and hills. Parts of it shelter small numbers of...

Khortytsya Island

The Zaporizhska Sich on Khortytsya Island was the most important cradle of Ukrainian Cossackdom, where hetman (leader) Dmytro Baida united disparate groups of Cossacks in the construction of a sich (fort) in 1553-54. The island was perfect strategically located below the Dnipro rapids and beyond the control of Polish or Russian authority. Any man could come to join the Cossack brotherhood, irrespective of social background, and like Galicia under self-rule in the 14th century (see pi 13), the...

Askaniya Nova Ackahm Hoba

Just a few kilometres north of the border between Ukraine proper and Crimea lies a vast plain populated by roaming buffaloes, playing deer and antelopes, as well as sturdy, wild Przewalski's horses and other exotic species. The 2300-hectare Askaniya Nova Reserve was the brainchild of a 19th-century German settler who acted on his slightly mad idea of importing animals from different continents to this unique natural steppe. In addition to the above-mentioned animals, there are zebras, camels,...

Barearsed In Snowy Kharkiv

He paid one homeless Kharkiv woman to pose for his camera in the snow, with her knickers pushed to her knees and her blouse above her breasts and scarred stomach. In another picture, a naked woman with a large cancerous growth jutting from her stomach tends a flower bush. Yet Ukrainian photographer Boris Mikhailov wasn't censured or censored for such shocking images. He was awarded the prestigious Citibank Photography Award. That same year, 2000, he also won the Hasselblad Photography Award for...

1

Believe it or not, the terakony are Donetsk's most interesting tourist attraction 'Quite beautiful,' as one resident put it. 'They change colours with the climate, the seasons and the years.' The best place to observe these heaps o' slag is out by the new stadium in Lenin Komsomol Park, where chiselled socialist realist sculptures dot a sprawling war memorial. Donetsk's new soccer stadium entertains Shakhtar Donetsk's European visitors and will host the Euro 2012 games. Domestic games are still...

Beaches Hydropark

City beaches are a hot talking point these days, thanks to Paris' plage, but Kyiv had them long before sand along the Seine was even a grain of an idea. Thanks to a dam a few kilometres downstream, the Dnipro around Kyiv is full of islands and beaches, which are packed with sunbathers in summer. Water sports like wake-boarding and sailing are popular summer pursuits, while in the winter ice fishers descend on the frozen river en masse and intrepid 'walrus' swimmers take to the frigid...

Off Piste

The Carpathians are one of eastern Europe's premier skiing regions and, if you're already coming this way, these slopes provide an unusual alternative to those in the continent's west. Outside pricey Bukovel, ski passes in this area are about 10 to 20 a day, and equipment rental costs around the same. Hotel rooms can go up to 100 a double in high season, but homestays can be as cheap as 20. Piligrim ( 8-032 2970551 www.piligrim.lviv.ua) and Skillkraine (www.skiukraine.info) both have useful...

Jewish Lviv

Jewish sites in Lviv are more noteworthy for what's been destroyed than for what remains, but a tour through the city's rich Jewish past can still elicit a range of emotions. There were more than 100,000 Jews in Lviv before WWII, not including the several thousand Jewish refugees who arrived from Germany and western Poland before the war. The Nazis murdered nearly all of them at Lviv's Janowska concentration and forced labour camp, and at Belzec, another hideous extermination camp in...

Getting Around ToFrom the Airport

Catching an Atass bus is the usual way to Boryspil airport (22uah, 45 minutes to one hour). Buses (marked 'ATacc) depart from behind the train station's South Terminal every 15 to 30 minutes between 4.40am and 1.20am. Shared taxis to the airport also leave from here these should cost 30uah per passenger but they will try to get more out of foreigners. At Boryspil, buses arrive depart from in front of the international terminal. One way to save a few hryvnia - and considerable time on the way to...

Cxiuia YKpama

Eastern Ukraine is the business end of the country. While the USSR still lived, this was the heart of the Soviet military-industrial complex. Monolithic socialist realist monuments dominate the horizon, Lenin lives in myriad statues, and communist disdain for nature endures, as chimney stacks heartily bellow out smoke. But these landmarks now happily coexist with neon signs, McDonald's restaurants, Benetton clothing stores and luxury goods, as cities such as Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and, to a...

Shadows Of Forgotten Ancestors

'A god-forsaken Carpathian region a land of Ukrainian Hutsuls'. So declares an opening screen of one of the most celebrated Soviet films, Sergei Paradzhanov's Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (1964). Paradzhanov's judgment of the Carpathians is a bit harsh, but it's no doubt made to set the scene for the tragic tale that follows. Part Romeo and Juliet, part Wuthering Heights, it's the story of how Hutsul shepherd Ivan is haunted by the untimely death of his childhood sweetheart Marika, the...

Getting There Away

Dozens of trains go through Khmelnytsky on their way to Lviv 60uah, four hours and Kyiv 58uah, six to eight hours , which is also serviced by two daily express trains 45uah, AVi hours . One express train from Kyiv continues to Kamyanets-Podilsky, departing Khmelnytsky at 9.20pm and arriving two hours later. There are also five trains per evening to Odesa 60uah, six to eight hours , all departing between 10.30pm and Sam. Private marshrutky zip down to Kamyanets-Podilsky every 30 minutes or so...

Greater Kyiv

To Pro lisok Tour is Complex 700m Zhytomyr 125km Khmelnytsky 308km Y f Lviv 530km tW Ivano-Frankivsk 565kra i 'Jo Chernihiv marshrutlcy stop 2km , I Chernihiv 140km , Novhorod Siverslc gt ATMs and credit cards. For a reliable, centrally located bank try Raffeissen Bank Aval Map pp68-9 vul Khreshchatyk 46a S 9am-8pm Mon-Fri, 9am-6pmSat amp Sun M Teatralna .

Feeds.feedburner.com

Crimean Tatars are renowned as industrious and entrepreneurial, and their former capital is now a great base for budget travellers. For more, visit the Crimean Association of Local Tourism Initiatives www.ethnotour.crimean.biz . Hotel Prival 478 46, 522 70, 472 35 www.prival .crimea.com vul Shmidta 43 dm bed 10-16, d 45-50, tr 48, 2-3 person cottages 66-100 g 6 This Butlins-style holiday camp that's Butlins, Ukrainian division offers breathtaking vistas of the limestone cliffs, a sauna, pool,...

Economy

Although Ukraine remains one of the poorest countries in Europe - and in some rural regions looks it - its economy has been in rude health recently. There's even a danger of overheating, as price rises over 14 outpace wage gains about 6.8 . Property price hikes are extreme. In Kyiv they've shot up by at least a third in recent years, making this the most expensive eastern European city. With one-bedroom apartments starting at around 100,000, the capital is even dearer than Amsterdam. Whatever...

Kosmach Deidyshyn

Kojiomhh 4 C2 We hesitate to call Kosmach off the beaten track, as the only road to it is very beaten indeed. The road's infamous potholes and Kosmach's vigilant villagers even managed to keep the Soviets at bay after WWII. Today the place is famous among Ukrainians for the private Oleska Dovbush Museum, run by Mykhailo Deidyshyn. It's a very Pan's Labyrinth experience. Deidyshyn claims the hut housing his small museum is the one in which the 'the Ukrainian Robin Hood' see box, p144 was...

Midrange

Vesuvio Pizza Map pp68-9 235 6681 vul Reytarska 25 pasta 25-30uah, large pizzas 25-32uah M Zoloti Vorota Vesuvio serves delicious pizza and sensibly priced Italian food in a quiet, no-frills space near Zoloti Vorota. Long one of Kyiv's most popular pizzerias, it now has a second location on bul Tarasa Shevchenka, near the St Petersburg Hotel. Both restaurants deliver. Kray Map p66 285 6887 vul Kutuzova 12 mains 25-40uah M Pecherska The Chinese chef at this well-kept secret in Pechersk cooks a...

Dnipropetrovsk

M 056 7-digit Nos , 0562 6-digit Nos pop 1.08 million You don't have to be a rocket scientist to come to Dnipropetrovsk these days, but at one time you practically did. As the USSR's leading missile production base, it manufactured ICBMs and was closed to all outside the industry. However, that era is long past. Soon after Ukrainian independence the city gates opened, Europe's largest missile factory turned to making space hardware instead and its director, Leonid Kuchma, packed his bags and...

Black Sea Rave

Most people west of Berlin have yet to hear of it, but long-term attendees complain that the annual rave Kazantip www.kazantip.com Jul-Aug has become too commercial. Launched in the early 1990s as an apr s-surf party near a half-finished nuclear reactor on the northeastern Kazantip peninsula, the five-week-long festival moved, because of local pressure, to Popivka, north of Yevpatoriya. Today 'the republic of Kazantip' is a huge Ibiza-style operation with enormous stage sets, international DJs...

Ivanofrankivsk

8- 0342 6-digit Nos , 8- 03422 5-digit Nos pop 204,000 With pastel-coloured neoclassical buildings, neatly landscaped gardens and orderly, tree-lined cobblestone pavements, the spruced-up city of Ivano-Frankivsk is increasingly becoming one of Ukraine's most pleasant. Just a few years ago 'Ivano' seemed more of an unfinished colouring-in book, where the renovated centre bled off into a monochrome past. But somebody's been busy with the paintbrush, while the service, food and general ambience...

Lifestyle

Just as there is no one 'typical Ukrainian, so there is no single average lifestyle. This is still a relatively poor, second-world country. However, it's fair to say that daily life has become marginally easier for most households since 2005. The average national wage has been increasing at about 36 a year. In 2007 it was at 1426uah 275 a month, peaking in Kyiv at an average 2400uah 480 . In The Ukrainians Unexpected Nation academic Andrew Wilson examines Ukraine's founding myths, how its...

Cinema

'Basically, the Ukrainian film industry is dead right now,' producer Vladimir Horunzhy told movie-trade bible Variety in 2006. 'The only filmmaking that's going on is production servicing for Russian films and TV,' Horunzhy asserted, before modesdy announcing that he and his partners were starting a revival with their sentimental AIDS drama Orange Love www. orangelovethemovie. com . Horunzhy is right that independent Ukraine hasn't had enormous cinematic success. Links to Russia and, further...

Sea

Cruise and cargo ships are the main users of Ukrainian ports but some useful scheduled ferry services do exist. Please note, however, that some routes frequently change, so double-check any information you can just before leaving home. From Ilyichevsk, outside Odesa, Ukrferry 8-0482 344 059 www.ukrferry.com travels year-round to Varna, Bulgaria one-way passenger 10, car 85 to 135,20 hours, Ilyichevsk departure 6pm Monday, Varna departure 6pm Wednesday . It also sails to Georgia, heading for...

Pyrohovo Museum of Folk Architecture

Ukraine is dotted with 'open-air' museums like this, full of life-size models of different rustic buildings. However, the Pyrohovo Museum of Folk Architecture Map p66 526 2416 vul Chervonopraporna admission lOuah S museum 10am-5pm, grounds sunrise-sunset , 12km south of Kyiv, is one of the most fun and best maintained. Two things make it stand out. Firstly, the quaint 17th- to 20th-century wooden churches, cottages, farmsteads and windmills are divided into seven 'villages' representing...

Solo Travellers

More independent travellers are making their way to Ukraine, and though the rest of the country still doesn't exacdy cater to their needs, the growing network of hostels does. Apart from a few well-trodden international train routes eg Przemysl, Poland to Lviv , these are the only places you can really bank on meeting other travellers. However, if you're moving around, rather than staying in one city, you'll never feel alone in Ukraine. Whether pressed against local people on a crowded,...

History

Although their northern neighbours disparagingly refer to Ukrainians as 'little Russians', it was Ukraine that was home to the first eastern Slavic state. So historically Ukraine is the birthplace of Russia rather than vice versa. Another irony is that this initial state, Kyivan Rus, was founded in the 9th century by neither Russians nor Ukrainians, but by Vikings - an indication of just how much foreigners have meddled in the region's convoluted history. Invaded by Mongols from the east,...

Kharkiv Xapkib

If Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Zaporizhzhya are the strong-arm muscle of Ukrainian industry, then the more northerly city of Kharkiv is its nerve centre and brain. It's a leafy university town that makes the unusual boast of being the birthplace of the Soviet nuclear industry. And it combines vast, agoraphobia-inducing plazas -particularly its unforgettably enormous pi Svobody - with charming early-20th-century buildings on more compact streets. With more than 100,000 enrolled at the...

Rivne Pibhe

Standing in Rivne's central maydan Nezal-ezhnosti, you couldn't be anywhere else but THE WORLD OF NIKOLAI GOGOL MarcdiDuca Although Taras Shevchenko is the greatest literary figure within Ukraine, one of the best-known Ukrainian writers outside the country's borders must be Nikolai Gogol. He was born in 1809 to impoverished parents in the Cossack village of Sorochyntsi near Poltava. It was here, in deepest rural Ukraine, that Gogol spent his formative years before leaving for St Petersburg in...

Uchansu Waterfall Mt AyPetri

Heading northwest from Yalta, bus 30 from the main bus station takes you within walking distance of two beauty spots in the mountains off the Bakhchysaray road. From the Vodopad Waterfall stop about 11km out, you can walk to a platform 5uah beside the lOOm-high Uchansu Waterfall. From the Karagol stop, 3km further up the road, a track leads to forest-ringed Lake Karagol. Both spots have a restaurant. Continuing past the Karagol stop, the road winds spectacularly up to the top of the range 13km...

Hotels

Hotel Krim 271 701 baza hotelkrim.yalta.crimea.ua vul Moskovskaya 1 6 s 8-11, d 18-50, tr amp q 22-70 gl Despite its best efforts to be dour and utterly unwelcoming, this ex-Soviet number remains megapopular for its low prices and central location expect noise . The cheaper rooms for each category have a shared bathroom, and the priciest doubles and triples have air conditioning. Hotel Otdikh 353 069 otdyh yalta.com vul Drazhinskogo 14 s 30-70, d 45-100 Hotel 'Relaxation' was a 19th-century...

Kalynivsky Market

With its own police station, first-aid point and dedicated bank branches, the 33 hectare Kalynivsky Market www.kalina.cv.ua, in Ukrainian S 8am-2pm is like a town unto itself. As a conduit into Ukraine for goods from neigh bouring countries, it attracts some 50,000 shoppers a day and is a frenetic, wonderful phenomenon. You might not want to buy anything in particular, although it is good for baseball caps and trainers, and it's great for people-watching. Take any of the numerous marshrutky to...

Kaniv Kahib

When Taras Shevchenko died in 1861, his famous poem Zapovit Testament requested his fellow countryfolk bury him on a hill overlooking the great Dnipro River where, after rising up and liberating the land, they could 'freely, and with good intent, speak quietly of him'. Kaniv, 162km down the Dnipro from Kyiv, is the spot. In 1925 the steep and scenic bluff overlooking the river called Tarasova Hora Taras' Hill admission 8 to 4pm Tue-Sun luah, other times free S sunrise-sunset , was designated a...

Entertainment

Dnipro River, flanked by a promenade and busy vul Naberezhna Lenina nab Lenina , parallels pr Karla Marksa to the north. Handle both your snail-mail and email needs at the post office pr Karla Marksa 62 internet per hr5.50uah S 8am-8pm Mon-Fri, 8am-7pm Sat . Check out http gorod.dp.ua for the latest hotel, restaurant and club news. I Window shopping is one pleasant Dnipro- Ea petrovsk experience. Tree-lined pr Karla Hja Marksa has plenty of retail therapy, but the latest shopping hot spot is...

Sleeping

In addition to the following options, Salix Tours has a secluded riverside cabin available for 15 per person per night, exclusive of boat hire 60 . Bring your own food. Venetsiya 313 74 vul Lenina 19A r per person from Si5 P K The brand-spanking-new 'Venice' represents exceptional value, with big, bright, comfy rooms and fluffy rugs. Most rooms share squeaky-clean bathrooms and there's a restaurant. Pelikan Tour 8-067 483 5207 d with shared bathroom, per person 20 . Pelikan Tour runs a homy...

Kherson Xepcoh

Kherson is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the Dnipro River, but the main reason to come here is, rather, for what lies around the city. The city is a popular, if not terribly convenient, jump-off point for the Askaniya Nova Reserve right , and there are also several less-ballyhooed excursions closer at hand. One such excursion is to the Swedish village of Zmiyivka, whose first citizens begged Catherine the Great to move them here to escape serfdom in Russian-governed Sweden in the late...

Kurortne Kypopthoe

Tiny and remote Kurortne is where hardcore travellers now head, although it already boasts a modern resort complex. Construction continues apace - possibly at an alarming pace -in this hamlet below the striking rock formations of the Kara-Dag Nature Reserve. One of Kurortne's most popular attractions remains the nearby Lissya Bukhta Fox Bay . For the full libertarian experience, you can pitch a tent at this sandy beach about a 2.5km walk west from Kurortne. Clothing is optional here and the...

Hiking Hoverla

It's hardly the most remote trail in the Carpathians, nor the most litter-free, but the popular ascent to Ukraine's highest peak is relatively easy to achieve. On a clear day, the expansive views from Mt Hoverla are also breathtaking. Initially, the trail follows the Yeremcha-Vorokta-Zaroslyak road, so how much of the way you want to hike and how much you want to cover by marshrutka which go as far as Vorokhta or taxi is up to you. About 6km south of Vorokhta Map pl42 , you will need to take...

NieHHa YKpama

This southerly region once helped make the Russian empress Catherine great. As part of her territorial acquisitions in the late 18th century, it vastly expanded her dominion and brought Russia huge wealth by opening it up to the Black Sea. Novorossiya, or new Russia, as it was ambitiously christened, had been a Wild West-style no-man's-land between the domain of the Cossacks and that of the Crimean Tatars. Under Catherine it became a melting pot, as Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Italians,...

Russia

Nova gt unaivtsiO u hytiya oSharf amyanets- A W sj Podilsky Mogyliv Museum bul Kafedralna 14 admission 2uah, S 10am-5pm Tue-Sat , housed in a former Orthodox church. Here you'll find stuffed specimens of indigenous foxes, elk, wolf and wildcats lurking in dioramas that accurately portray Polissya's forested topography. The Korolyov Cosmonaut Museum 372 653 vul Dmytrivska 5 admission 7uah S10am-1 pm amp 2-5.30pm Tue-Sun, closed lastThu ofthe month , named...

From Rakhiv To Romania

Officially there are two ways of travelling from Rakhiv to Sighetu Marmatiei in Romania. On Monday, Wednesday and Friday, there are two train services one morning, one afternoon from nearby Teresva across the border to Sighet. Any bus from Rakhiv to Uzhhorod, Khust or Mukacheve will get you to Teresva one to two hours . Additionally, in 2007 a car-pedestrian bridge was opened across the Tysa River between Solotvyno and Sighetu Marmatiei. But the train has been stopped in the past to thwart...