Food Drink

The Complete Book of Turkish Cooking, by Ayla Esen Algar, is widely regarded as the best Turkish cookery book (in English) available. The Turkish diet has meant that Turks now appear near the top of the world obesity stakes. Deceptively simple, yet absolutely delicious when done to perfection, the humblesimit, an 0-shaped bread ring sprinkled with sesame seeds, is the number-1 snack for Turks. The magic ingredient in something seemingly so simple-flour, water and salt - is pekmez, a grape...

Around Antakya Harbiye Daphne

The hill suburb of Harbiye, 9km to the south of Antakya, is the ancient Daphne where, according to classical mythology, the virgin Daphne prayed to be rescued from the attentions of the god Apollo and was turned into a laurel tree. There are no laurels to be seen nowadays, although pine trees ring a large pool of water, very popular as a picnic place. The best approach is to get off the dolmuj opposite Hotel Qaglayan and walk down into the wooded valley on the left, which is usually full of...

Pensions Guesthouses

In all of the destinations popular with travellers you'll be able to find simple family-run pensions and guesthouses (they are one of a kind) where you can get a good, clean single double for around 20 30. Many also have dorm rooms and sometimes family rooms. These places usually offer a choice of simple meals, book exchanges, laundry services, international TV services etc, and it's these facilities that really distinguish them from traditional small, cheap hotels. Most pensions also have...

Embassies Consulates in Turkey

Most embassies and consulates in Turkey are open from 8am to noon Monday to Friday although some embassies of Muslim countries maybe open Sunday to Thursday. Often they also open in the afternoon for people to pick up visas. Exceptions to these opening hours are included below. If you need to ask the way to an embassy say ' Country bafkonsoloslugu nerede ' For details on getting visas to neighbouring countries, see p674. Armenia Contact Russian embassy. Australia (S 8.30am-4.30pm Mon-Fri)...

Eating Drinking

Syrian influences permeate Antakya's cuisine. Handfuls of mint and wedges of lemon accompany many kebaps. Hummus, rare elsewhere in Turkey, is readily available here. Many main courses and salads are dusted with fiery pepper if this isn't to your taste, ask for yours acisiz (without hot pepper). For dessert, try the local speciality, kiinefe, a cake of fine shredded wheat laid over a dollop of fresh, mild cheese, on a layer of sugar syrup, topped with chopped walnuts and baked. Try and get it...

The Ottomans Ascendant Constantinople Beyond

It took a decade for the dust to setde after Tamerlane departed, dragging a no-doubt chastened Beyazit with him. Beyazit's sons wresded for control until finally a new sultan worthy of his predecessors emerged. With Mehmet I at the helm the Ottomans regrouped and got back to the job at hand expansion. With a momentum born of reprieve they scooped up the remaining parts of Anatolia, rolled through Greece, made a first attempt at Constantinople and beat the Serbs, this time with Albanian...

Monastery Valley Antique City

Walk downhill from the main square following the signs to the Monastery Valley & Antique City. About 300m from the square, a sign points left to a small, recently restored underground city (yeralti ehri admission 3 S 8am-5.30pm), actually more of an underground village. There are also several churches in the valley, including the Ko (Ram) and the Cafarlar (Rivulets), with its interesting frescoes. The most striking of all is the A agi or Biiyiik Kilise Camii (Lower or Big Mosque), built as...

Around SiNOP

If you have your own transport or fancy a day tour out of Sinop, there are a few attractions in nearby towns and villages - consult the tourist office or a travel agency for suggestions. The most common excursions are to Erfelek, famed for its 28 waterfalls, the historic fishing town of Gerze and the area around Ayanak (see p539). Walking and canoeing are popular pastimes for the more energetic visitor. If you just want a dip in the Karadeniz (Black Sea), the black-sand Karakum Plaji is about...

Glossary

See p74 in the Food & Drink chapter for useful words and phrases dealing with food and dining. See the Language chapter (p692) for other useful words and phrases. acropolis - hilltop citadel and temples of a classical Hellenic city ada(si) - island agora - open space for commerce and politics in a Graeco-Roman city aile salonu - family dining room, for couples, families and single women in a Turkish restaurant Anatolia - the Asian part of Turkey also called Asia Minor arabesk - Arabic-style...

Hierapolis Castabala

Set in the midst of cotton fields about 19km south of Karatepe and 15km north of Os-maniye are the ruinss of Hierapolis-Castabala (admission 1.25 S8am-7pm). A kale (castle) tops a rocky outcrop above the plain about 1km east of the road. The ticket seller will lend you a leaflet in English, and you can see everything in about an hour. From the ticket-seller's shed, walk along a colonnaded street that once boasted 78 paired columns some still bear their fine Corinthian capitals. You pass a badly...

Air

Ankara's Esenboga airport, 33km north of the city centre, is the hub for Turkish Airlines' domestic flight network. Of the budget carriers, only Atlasjet and Pegasus Airlines serve Ankara, so you may have more options going via Istanbul. The table below shows direct flights from Ankara only. All schedules are subject to change. Other international airlines sometimes have flights to Ankara, or connections with Turkish Airlines' flights from Istanbul. FLIGHTS FROM ANKARA'S AIRPORT Destination...

Ottoman Architecture

The Ottomans also left many magnificent mosques and medreses, as well as many more fine wood-and-stone houses. Before Ottoman times, the most common form of mosque was a large square or rectangular space sheltered by a series of small domes resting on pillars, as in Edirne's Eski Cami (pl69). But when the Ottomans took Bursa and znik in the early 14th century they were exposed to Byzantine architecture, particularly ecclesiastical architecture. Ottoman architects absorbed these influences and...

Getting There Away

Two airports service central Cappadocia Kayseri and Nevjehir. For details of flights to from Istanbul and Izmir see p498 and p516. Turkish Airlines and Onur Air operate 14-seat transfer buses (tickets 7 to 8.50 per person) for passengers leaving or arriving at Kayseri on mid-morning and early evening flights. There is no shuttle for Sun Express or Pegasus passengers. The buses pick up from and drop off to hotels and pensions in Goreme, Ufhisar, Ortahisar, Avanos, Nevjehir and Urgiip. If you...

Apartments

Apartments for holiday rentals are usually thin on the ground. Wherever possible we have listed them in this book otherwise your best bet is to try www.ownersdirect.co.uk or www.holidaylettings.co.uk. If you're interested in hiring an apartment along the coast (eg Ka , Antalya, Bodrum) your best bet is to contact local real estate agents (emlakci) who hold lists of available holiday rentals and are used to dealing with foreigners.

Antakyahatay

Until its unification with Turkey in 1939, Antakya Hatay was Arabic in culture and language. Indeed, many locals still speak Arabic, and the city boasts a mix of Sunni, Alevi and Orthodox Christian faiths. Modern Antakya is hardly a beautiful place, but its museum is one of Turkey's finest, justifying a lengthy detour. In the cave-church To Cave-Church of St Peter St Pierre Kilisesi 1km Syrian Frontier 60km To St Pierre Kilisesi ch of St Peter 1km rian Frontier 60km B3 iskenderun Dolmu Stand 32...

Activities Trekking

Trekking is the main reason people come to the Kafkars, and there are innumerable walks you could do. Talk to locals and the trekking guides to create your own adventure. Note that the trekking season in this region is very short, and you will only be able to do the higher mountain routes between mid-July and mid-August, when the snowline is highest. From mid-May to mid-September there are still plenty of walks you can do on the lower slopes and dozens of little mountain villages where you can...

Oil Wrestling

Turkey's most famous yagli giiref oil wresding matches have been taking place near Edirne since 1361 see the boxed text, pl71 . Every June, hundreds of amateur wrestiers from all over Turkey gather there to show off their strength. The wresders are organised into classes, from te vik encouragement to ba giire ler head wresders , with the winner in each class being designated a bafpehlivan, or master wresder. Clad only in leather shorts, they coat themselves with olive oil, utter a traditional...

Silifke

Syber Internet C fe 1 B3 Teklr Ambari 8 A3 Temple of Jupiter 9 C3 Tourist Office 2 B2 Ulu B2 Archaeological Museum 3 D3 Ataturk Beledlye Town Hall 5 B3 Re adlye B2 Otel Ayatekla 12 C3 G ksu G zde Sallm Ustanln Yerl 16 B3 C3 Ta ucu Dolmu Stand 18 B2 Ta ucu Dolmu Stand 19 D3 Uzuncaburg Dolmu 20 B2 B2 Otel Ayatekla 12 C3 C3 Ta ucu Dolmu Stand 18 B2 Ta ucu Dolmu Stand 19 D3 Uzuncaburg Dolmu 20 B2 The town is divided by the G ksu River, called the Calycadnus in ancient times. Most of the services,...

Laz

The 250,000-odd Laz people mainly inhabit the valleys between Trabzon and Rize. East of Trabzon you can hardly miss the women in their vivid red- and maroon-striped shawls. Laz men are less conspicuous, although they were once among the most feared of Turkish warriors for years black-clad Laz warriors were Atatiirk's personal bodyguards. Once Christian but now Muslim, the Laz are a Caucasian people who speak a language related to Georgian. Just as speaking Kurdish was forbidden until 1991, so...

Sleeping

Many of the hotels and pensions in Side are not operated and managed by their actual owners, but rather are sublet for the tourist season. You can probably guess what effect this has on customer service. Try to find a place where the employees have been around for a while. Also note that if you're staying in a hotel some distance from town, you'll need to round up transport in order to reach Side's ruins. Pettino's Pansiyon 753 3608 pettino superonline .com Cami Sokak 9 s d 17 23 E Aside from...

The Legend Of Ferhat Irin

Amasya is the setting for one of Turkey's best-loved folk tales, the tragic love story of Ferhat and irin. In its simplest form, it's the Eastern equivalent of Romeo and Juliet the young nakis wall painting craftsman Ferhat falls in love with irin, the sister of sultan-queen Mehmene Banu, but the sultana disapproves of the match, so she demands that the young suitor carve a channel through the mountains to bring water to her drought-struck city. In the course of his Herculean labours, Ferhat...

Behold The Anamur Banana

Nearly every city and town along Turkey's eastern Mediterranean coast seems to be known for its proficiency in growing a certain type of fruit, and Anamur is no different. Here, the banana reigns supreme. Until the mid-1980s, Anamur bananas were the only sort of banana available anywhere in the country. That certainly wasn't a bad thing. It's true the bananas are especially small, but their smell, and especially their taste, is outstanding. Anamur bananas are much sweeter and more flavourful...

BELiSIRMA

Midway along the gorge, beside Belisirma village, there are four low-key but agreeable licensed restaurants. These benefit from their enviable position right by the river, and all serve basic meals of grilled trout, saf tava, kebaps, salads and soups. You can camp in the grounds for no charge if you eat in the associated restaurant - all four places have basic ablution blocks. Anatolia Valley Restaurant amp Camping 457 3040 mains 4-5 A good site, with a couple of vine-covered pergolas for...

Around Trabzon Sumela Monastery

One of the highlights of the Black Sea coast, the Greek Orthodox Monastery of the Virgin Mary admission 2.80 S9am-6pmJun-Aug, 9am-4pm Sep-May at Sumela, 46km south of Trabzon, was founded in Byzantine times and abandoned in 1923 after the creation of the Turkish Republic put paid to hopes of creating a new Greek state in this region. The setting is absolutely magical. The monastery clings to a sheer rock wall high above evergreen forests and a rushing mountain stream. It can be a mysterious,...

Northern Cyprus

The main crossing point between northern Cyprus and Turkey is between Tajucu near Silifke and Girne on the northern coast of northern Cyprus. Akgiinler Denizcilik www.akgun ler.com.tr makes this journey - see p418. You can also travel between Alanya and Girne with Fergiin Denizcilik www.fergun.net - see p414 . Finally, you can travel between Mersin and FERRIES BETWEEN TURKEY amp GREECE Route Frequency 50 60 same-day, 100 open return 25 40 same day, 50 open return Gazimagusa Famagusta on the...

Goksu Valley

From Uzuncabu the road continues via Kirobasi to Mut and then to Karaman and Konya. Winding up into the forests you may pass huge stacks of logs cut by the Tahtacilar, the Alevi mountain woodcutters who live a secluded life in the forest. About 40km before Mut the road skirts a fantastic limestone canyon that extends for several kilometres. High above in the limestone cliffs are caves, which were probably once inhabited. The land in the valleys is rich and well watered. About 20km north of Mut...

Bulgaria Eastern Europe

It's fairly easy to get to Istanbul by direct train or bus from many points in Europe via Bulgaria. There are three border crossings between Bulgaria and Turkey. The main border crossing is the busy Kapitan-Andreevo Kapikule, 18km west of Edirne on the E5. The closest town on the Bulgarian side is Svilen-grad, some 10km from the border. You have to hitch a lift or hire a taxi rather than walk between the Greek-Turkish border posts. Petrol, foreign-exchange facilities, restaurants and...

Urgup O

40DA Cave ., j j, iIc i, I', r 16 .1 h lt c j I-vi l', -isiyc-i ' . ft 1 17 v Hs ji- i I-vi l', -isiyc-i 18 A. lt . y. tl. 'i C.ivr Hi.-.jsr 21 A. B4 Han Qragan Restaurant 32 B4 le , -'s l-it i -t -fr sec V La Padella Caf Nature I DciIki.'iI.j .i B. D.jy.jV 1 lvl lt , y, li. Mr lt V l', st, -irsi Mu c C fr ft Rcst, ,j , -it S.K'.h.'f- .1 B.iilfci-t Rr-it, Dei, Re-it A C Hf-t To Market 200m Karaku Entertainment Centre . ' 1 Mustafapa a 5km, Ayvali 10km Soganh Six i gt ti'il le-i j AIk, ji i l.j...

Sleeping Eating

Many of Mustafapaja's accommodation options are closed from November to March. Monastery Hotel 353 5005 www.monasteryhotel .com Mehmet Jakirpaja Caddesi s d 10 20 On the road leading to Monastery Valley, this rough-as-guts place has some squalid downstairs rooms and a few much-more-bearable upstairs alternatives. We doubt that the hotel's bizarre disco-bar sees much action. Hotel Pacha 353 5331 www.pachahotel.com Sinasos Meydani s d incl breakfast 15 24 Lots of Cap-padocian hotels boast of the...

Trekking in Turkey

Turkey's huge, bare central plateau, punctuated by isolated volcanic cones and shimmering, shallow lakes, is hemmed by many mountain ranges. The Taurus ranges, in the central south, are limestone - raising white, weathered ridges above ancient cedar or juniper forests. On the coastal sides of these ranges, below pine-clad foothills, are steep-sided coves, busy harbours and resort towns. On the north are the Pontic Alps with, to the east, the Ka kars - a sharp, granite range, largely unforested,...

Classes Costs

Turkish trains have several seating and sleeping options. Most of the trains have comfortable reclining Pullman seat carriages. Some also have European-style compartments with six seats, usually divided into 1st- and 2nd-class coaches. Sometimes seats can be booked in these compartments, sometimes they're 'first come, best seated'. There are three types of sleeper. A kiifetli couchette wagon has shared four- or some times six-person compartments with seats that fold down into shelf-like beds....

Insect Bites Stings

Even if mosquitoes do not carry malaria, they can cause irritation and infected bites. Using DEET-based insect repellents will prevent bites. Mosquitoes also spread dengue fever. There is a risk of bee stings along the z Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas. Bees and wasps only cause real problems for those with a severe allergy anaphylaxis . If you have a severe allergy to bee or wasp stings you should carry an adrenaline injection or something similar. There is a particularly higher risk of...

Lyrbe Seleukeia in Pamphylia

Shordy after passing the Roman aqueduct, look for a sign on the left marked 'Lyrbe Seleukeia' 7km . Continue on through the village of ijihlar, and note the small bits of columns built into the walls of the village's stone houses. Take the road to the right opposite the minaret, which winds another 3km uphill to the ruins. The ruins, some quite crumbled and others in rather well-preserved condition, are particularly appealing due to their hilltop location. Situated among an expanse of pine...

Kizkales

Kizkalesi, which pushes right up against the main D400 highway, is the sort of place that seems garish and crude upon arrival. But stick around for a while, and this small village, which today is part open-air museum of antiquated ruins and part tacky tourism epicentre, will almost certainly grow on you. It's no secret how this very small town, 26km east of Silifke, became so popular. The impressively long beach here is one of the loveliest in this region, and that's to say nothing of the fact...