Environment

Turkey has one foot in Europe and another in Asia, its two parts separated by the famous Dardanelles, the placid Sea of Marmara and the hectic Bosphorus. Eastern Thrace (European Turkey) makes up a mere 3 of Turkey's 779,452 sq km land area. The remaining 97 is Anatolia (Asian Turkey). Boasting 8300km of coastline, snow-capped mountains, rolling steppes, vast lakes and broad rivers, Turkey is stupendously geographically diverse. The Aegean coast is lined with coves and beaches, with the Aegean...

SPORT Football

Turks are simply mad about football (soccer). Every city has a football stadium that heaves with fans on match days. Pre- and post-match, the streets are aflutter with team flags, and the bars and tea gardens buzz with talk of nothing else. The Turks' love affair with football began in the mid- 19th century, after they were introduced to the game by English tobacco merchants. First matches saw English and Greek teams face off, but soon Turkish students from the Galata high school ran on field...

Food Drink

The Complete Book of Turkish Cooking, by Ayla Esen Algar, is widely regarded as the best Turkish cookery book (in English) available. The Turkish diet has meant that Turks now appear near the top of the world obesity stakes. Deceptively simple, yet absolutely delicious when done to perfection, the humblesimit, an 0-shaped bread ring sprinkled with sesame seeds, is the number-1 snack for Turks. The magic ingredient in something seemingly so simple-flour, water and salt - is pekmez, a grape...

Around Antakya Harbiye Daphne

The hill suburb of Harbiye, 9km to the south of Antakya, is the ancient Daphne where, according to classical mythology, the virgin Daphne prayed to be rescued from the attentions of the god Apollo and was turned into a laurel tree. There are no laurels to be seen nowadays, although pine trees ring a large pool of water, very popular as a picnic place. The best approach is to get off the dolmuj opposite Hotel Qaglayan and walk down into the wooded valley on the left, which is usually full of...

Embassies Consulates in Turkey

Most embassies and consulates in Turkey are open from 8am to noon Monday to Friday although some embassies of Muslim countries maybe open Sunday to Thursday. Often they also open in the afternoon for people to pick up visas. Exceptions to these opening hours are included below. If you need to ask the way to an embassy say ' Country bafkonsoloslugu nerede ' For details on getting visas to neighbouring countries, see p674. Armenia Contact Russian embassy. Australia (S 8.30am-4.30pm Mon-Fri)...

Eating Drinking

Syrian influences permeate Antakya's cuisine. Handfuls of mint and wedges of lemon accompany many kebaps. Hummus, rare elsewhere in Turkey, is readily available here. Many main courses and salads are dusted with fiery pepper if this isn't to your taste, ask for yours acisiz (without hot pepper). For dessert, try the local speciality, kiinefe, a cake of fine shredded wheat laid over a dollop of fresh, mild cheese, on a layer of sugar syrup, topped with chopped walnuts and baked. Try and get it...

The Ottomans Ascendant Constantinople Beyond

It took a decade for the dust to setde after Tamerlane departed, dragging a no-doubt chastened Beyazit with him. Beyazit's sons wresded for control until finally a new sultan worthy of his predecessors emerged. With Mehmet I at the helm the Ottomans regrouped and got back to the job at hand expansion. With a momentum born of reprieve they scooped up the remaining parts of Anatolia, rolled through Greece, made a first attempt at Constantinople and beat the Serbs, this time with Albanian...

Monastery Valley Antique City

Walk downhill from the main square following the signs to the Monastery Valley & Antique City. About 300m from the square, a sign points left to a small, recently restored underground city (yeralti ehri admission 3 S 8am-5.30pm), actually more of an underground village. There are also several churches in the valley, including the Ko (Ram) and the Cafarlar (Rivulets), with its interesting frescoes. The most striking of all is the A agi or Biiyiik Kilise Camii (Lower or Big Mosque), built as...

Glossary

See p74 in the Food & Drink chapter for useful words and phrases dealing with food and dining. See the Language chapter (p692) for other useful words and phrases. acropolis - hilltop citadel and temples of a classical Hellenic city ada(si) - island agora - open space for commerce and politics in a Graeco-Roman city aile salonu - family dining room, for couples, families and single women in a Turkish restaurant Anatolia - the Asian part of Turkey also called Asia Minor arabesk - Arabic-style...

Air

Ankara's Esenboga airport, 33km north of the city centre, is the hub for Turkish Airlines' domestic flight network. Of the budget carriers, only Atlasjet and Pegasus Airlines serve Ankara, so you may have more options going via Istanbul. The table below shows direct flights from Ankara only. All schedules are subject to change. Other international airlines sometimes have flights to Ankara, or connections with Turkish Airlines' flights from Istanbul. FLIGHTS FROM ANKARA'S AIRPORT Destination...

Ottoman Architecture

The Ottomans also left many magnificent mosques and medreses, as well as many more fine wood-and-stone houses. Before Ottoman times, the most common form of mosque was a large square or rectangular space sheltered by a series of small domes resting on pillars, as in Edirne's Eski Cami (pl69). But when the Ottomans took Bursa and znik in the early 14th century they were exposed to Byzantine architecture, particularly ecclesiastical architecture. Ottoman architects absorbed these influences and...

Getting There Away

Two airports service central Cappadocia Kayseri and Nevjehir. For details of flights to from Istanbul and Izmir see p498 and p516. Turkish Airlines and Onur Air operate 14-seat transfer buses (tickets 7 to 8.50 per person) for passengers leaving or arriving at Kayseri on mid-morning and early evening flights. There is no shuttle for Sun Express or Pegasus passengers. The buses pick up from and drop off to hotels and pensions in Goreme, Ufhisar, Ortahisar, Avanos, Nevjehir and Urgiip. If you...

Antakyahatay

Until its unification with Turkey in 1939, Antakya Hatay was Arabic in culture and language. Indeed, many locals still speak Arabic, and the city boasts a mix of Sunni, Alevi and Orthodox Christian faiths. Modern Antakya is hardly a beautiful place, but its museum is one of Turkey's finest, justifying a lengthy detour. In the cave-church To Cave-Church of St Peter St Pierre Kilisesi 1km Syrian Frontier 60km To St Pierre Kilisesi ch of St Peter 1km rian Frontier 60km B3 iskenderun Dolmu Stand 32...

Activities Trekking

Trekking is the main reason people come to the Kafkars, and there are innumerable walks you could do. Talk to locals and the trekking guides to create your own adventure. Note that the trekking season in this region is very short, and you will only be able to do the higher mountain routes between mid-July and mid-August, when the snowline is highest. From mid-May to mid-September there are still plenty of walks you can do on the lower slopes and dozens of little mountain villages where you can...

Silifke

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Sleeping

Many of the hotels and pensions in Side are not operated and managed by their actual owners, but rather are sublet for the tourist season. You can probably guess what effect this has on customer service. Try to find a place where the employees have been around for a while. Also note that if you're staying in a hotel some distance from town, you'll need to round up transport in order to reach Side's ruins. Pettino's Pansiyon 753 3608 pettino superonline .com Cami Sokak 9 s d 17 23 E Aside from...

The Legend Of Ferhat Irin

Amasya is the setting for one of Turkey's best-loved folk tales, the tragic love story of Ferhat and irin. In its simplest form, it's the Eastern equivalent of Romeo and Juliet the young nakis wall painting craftsman Ferhat falls in love with irin, the sister of sultan-queen Mehmene Banu, but the sultana disapproves of the match, so she demands that the young suitor carve a channel through the mountains to bring water to her drought-struck city. In the course of his Herculean labours, Ferhat...

Behold The Anamur Banana

Nearly every city and town along Turkey's eastern Mediterranean coast seems to be known for its proficiency in growing a certain type of fruit, and Anamur is no different. Here, the banana reigns supreme. Until the mid-1980s, Anamur bananas were the only sort of banana available anywhere in the country. That certainly wasn't a bad thing. It's true the bananas are especially small, but their smell, and especially their taste, is outstanding. Anamur bananas are much sweeter and more flavourful...

Around Trabzon Sumela Monastery

One of the highlights of the Black Sea coast, the Greek Orthodox Monastery of the Virgin Mary admission 2.80 S9am-6pmJun-Aug, 9am-4pm Sep-May at Sumela, 46km south of Trabzon, was founded in Byzantine times and abandoned in 1923 after the creation of the Turkish Republic put paid to hopes of creating a new Greek state in this region. The setting is absolutely magical. The monastery clings to a sheer rock wall high above evergreen forests and a rushing mountain stream. It can be a mysterious,...

Northern Cyprus

The main crossing point between northern Cyprus and Turkey is between Tajucu near Silifke and Girne on the northern coast of northern Cyprus. Akgiinler Denizcilik www.akgun ler.com.tr makes this journey - see p418. You can also travel between Alanya and Girne with Fergiin Denizcilik www.fergun.net - see p414 . Finally, you can travel between Mersin and FERRIES BETWEEN TURKEY amp GREECE Route Frequency 50 60 same-day, 100 open return 25 40 same day, 50 open return Gazimagusa Famagusta on the...

Bulgaria Eastern Europe

It's fairly easy to get to Istanbul by direct train or bus from many points in Europe via Bulgaria. There are three border crossings between Bulgaria and Turkey. The main border crossing is the busy Kapitan-Andreevo Kapikule, 18km west of Edirne on the E5. The closest town on the Bulgarian side is Svilen-grad, some 10km from the border. You have to hitch a lift or hire a taxi rather than walk between the Greek-Turkish border posts. Petrol, foreign-exchange facilities, restaurants and...

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Sleeping Eating

Many of Mustafapaja's accommodation options are closed from November to March. Monastery Hotel 353 5005 www.monasteryhotel .com Mehmet Jakirpaja Caddesi s d 10 20 On the road leading to Monastery Valley, this rough-as-guts place has some squalid downstairs rooms and a few much-more-bearable upstairs alternatives. We doubt that the hotel's bizarre disco-bar sees much action. Hotel Pacha 353 5331 www.pachahotel.com Sinasos Meydani s d incl breakfast 15 24 Lots of Cap-padocian hotels boast of the...

Trekking in Turkey

Turkey's huge, bare central plateau, punctuated by isolated volcanic cones and shimmering, shallow lakes, is hemmed by many mountain ranges. The Taurus ranges, in the central south, are limestone - raising white, weathered ridges above ancient cedar or juniper forests. On the coastal sides of these ranges, below pine-clad foothills, are steep-sided coves, busy harbours and resort towns. On the north are the Pontic Alps with, to the east, the Ka kars - a sharp, granite range, largely unforested,...

Insect Bites Stings

Even if mosquitoes do not carry malaria, they can cause irritation and infected bites. Using DEET-based insect repellents will prevent bites. Mosquitoes also spread dengue fever. There is a risk of bee stings along the z Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas. Bees and wasps only cause real problems for those with a severe allergy anaphylaxis . If you have a severe allergy to bee or wasp stings you should carry an adrenaline injection or something similar. There is a particularly higher risk of...

Lyrbe Seleukeia in Pamphylia

Shordy after passing the Roman aqueduct, look for a sign on the left marked 'Lyrbe Seleukeia' 7km . Continue on through the village of ijihlar, and note the small bits of columns built into the walls of the village's stone houses. Take the road to the right opposite the minaret, which winds another 3km uphill to the ruins. The ruins, some quite crumbled and others in rather well-preserved condition, are particularly appealing due to their hilltop location. Situated among an expanse of pine...