Soviet

Futurists turned to the needs of the revolution - education, posters, banners - with enthusiasm. They had a chance to act on their theories of how art shapes society. But at the end of the 1920s abstract art fell out of favour. The Communist Party wanted socialist realism. Images abounded of striving workers, heroic soldiers and inspiring leaders, some of which are on display at the Russian Museum. Two million sculptures of Lenin and Stalin dotted the country; Malevich ended up painting portraits and doing designs for Red Square parades.

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CONTEMPORARY ART

■ Museum of Anna Akhmatova (p87)

■ Manege Central Exhibition Hall (p104)

After Stalin, an avant-garde 'Conceptualist' underground group was allowed to form. Ilya Kabakov painted or sometimes just arranged the debris of everyday life to show the gap between the promises and realities of Soviet existence. Erik Bulatov's 'Sotsart' pointed to the devaluation of language by ironically reproducing Soviet slogans or depicting words disappearing over the horizon. In 1962 artists set up a show of 'unofficial' art in Moscow: Khrushchev called it 'dogshit' and sent it back underground.

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