Novgorod Kremlin

Part park, part museum, part archive, the kremlin (§§ 8162-773 608;; admission free; S 6am-midnight) was referenced in chronicles as early as 1044. From here, Alexander Nevsky and his troops marched off to battle the Swedes; here the vech (Peoples' Assembly) met to elect the local leaders; and here stood the sacred St Sophia Cathedral. It was, in short, the heart and soul of ancient Novgorod. The kremlin walls standing today date from the 15th century. You can climb the highest of its nine towers, Kokuy Tower (S11am-7pm Apr-Sep), for a panorama of the Volkhov River and the town beyond.

Finished in 1052, the handsome Byzantine Cathedral of St Sophia (Sofiysky Sobor; S 8am-8pm) is one of the oldest buildings in Russia, built under the rule of Prince Vladimir ofKyiv. The simple, fortresslike exterior was designed to withstand attack or fire, especially since flames had taken out an earlier wooden church on the site. The



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' To Museum of Wooden Architecture (3.5km); St George's Monastery (4km)


Cathedral of Our Lady of the Sign

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Cathedral of St Sophia

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Church of Our Saviour-at-llino

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Court Cathedral of St Nicholas

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Exhibition Hall

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Fine Arts Museum

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Millennium of Russia Monument

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Museum of History &Art

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