The Jalali Calendar

The Jalali calendar was presented at the court of Malek Shah Seljuk in 1079. Its author, the famous mathematician and poet Omar Khayyam (p47), computed the length of the year as 365.24219858156 days. His calculations approached the accuracy of the late 16th-century Gregorian calendar. The " length of a modern year decreases in the sixth decimal within a typical human lifetime and is 365.242190 days.

An astrolabe was one of the devices that helped Omar Khayyam in his calculations.

1071 - The Battle of Manzikert between the armies of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes and Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan virtually ends Byzantine power in Asia Minor 1090-1257 - Ismailitc Movement in Iran

1097 - Battle of Nicaea ends in defeat for a Muslim army at the hands of a combined force of Crusaders and Byzantine Greeks who take the Seljuk Turks'capital 1097-1270 - Crusades 1140-1202 - Nezami, the famous Persian poet (p47) 1157-1199 - Richard the Lionheart of England

1157-1221 - Kharezm-Shahs dynasty

1184-1291 - Saadi, great Persian lyric poet (p47)

1191 - Zen Buddhism is introduced to Japan

Old Persian Painting

Watercolor painting in the Indo-Persian style depicts the meeting of Genghis Khan and the Uzbek chief Unak.

adopted the cultural language of their _ ft ^ Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread throughout Iran, and Arabic was reduced from the status of official language to the language of religious scholarship. Under Malek Shah, Iran enjoyed a cultural and scientific renaissance, largely attributed to his brilliant Iranian vizier, Nezam al-Molk (p57). The Seljuk Empire was greatly threatened by the Ismailites, who finally murdered Nezam al-Molk and Malek Shah. The state was also undermined by the Seljuk practice of dividing provinces among a deceased ruler's sons, thus creating numerous independent and unstable principalities. A war that was instigated in 1230 by Sultan Ala od-Din Key-Qobad I of the Kharezm-Shahs dynasty led to the elimination of Seljuk power. The last Iranian Seljuk king was killed on the battlefield in 1194, and by 1200 Seljuk power was at an end everywhere except in Anatolia. The Kharezm-Shahs created an imposing but very fragile empire, which was a victim of Mongol invasion.

A vase from Gorgan is a remarkable sample of the higly-developed Seljuk art of glassware making.

Watercolor painting in the Indo-Persian style depicts the meeting of Genghis Khan and the Uzbek chief Unak.

Important Il-Khanid Rulers:

Ghazan- 1295-1304 Oljeitu - 1304-1316 Abu Said - 1317-1335

1206 - Genghis Khan begins his attempt at world conquest 1207-1273 - Rumi, poet and founder of the Mowlavi order of whirling dervishes (p47) 1218-1227 - Genghis Khan's invasion of Persia

1227 - Genghis Khan dies at age 65, and his empire is divided among his three sons 1248-1250 - A Seventh Crusade, the Crusaders introduce Arabic numerals and the Arabic decimal system, both of Indian origin, to Europe

1256-1265 - Hulagu Khan wipes out the Ismailites, ends the Abbasid caliphate, and inaugurates the Il-Khanid dynasty 1271 - Marco Polo journeys through Persia on his way to China 1274 - Naser od-Din Tusi, the great Persian astronomer and philosopher

1320-1389 - Hafez, the greatest Persian lyric poet (p47) 1337-1453 - Hundred Years' War between England and France 1340-1393 - Mozaffarid dynasty in southern Iran

1360-1411 - Jalayrid rule in northwestern Iran

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