Early Civilizations in Iran

Man's presence on the Iranian plateau during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages has not yet been properly studied. Life during the Neolithic period, however, is much better known. Considerable geological and natural evidence has proven that Iran was home to one of mankind's first major cultures, ahead of every other part of the world except Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Significant shifts in tool manufacture, settlement patterns, and subsis-tence methods, including domestica- »S^

tion of plants and animals, charac- remarkable example of terize the Neolithic Iranian settle- prehistoric Iranian pottery.

ments, all of which date wholly or in part from the 8th and 7th millennia. Iranians were probably the first to cultivate wheat and dates, and to tame camels and sheep. The existence of rich mines in Iran can be an indication that metal was excavated and processed here since ancient times. One of the recently excavated archaeological sites - Arisman (p201) - has proved to be one of the world's earliest centers of the metallurgical industry. By approximately the 6th millennium BC, village farming was widespread over much of the Iranian plateau and in lowland Khuzestan. Among others, Sialk [pi65) on the rim of the central salt desert has yielded evidence of fairly sophisticated patterns of agricultural life. Having begun in the Paleolithic era, Iran's first vigorous growth had developed by the 3rd millennium BC into a civilization of great sophistication - Elam.

Iranian Plateau1000 Bce Judaism

c. 2700-1500 BC

-Old Elamite period 2348 BC -Year of the Flood, 600 years after the birth of Noah, as will be reckoned by Biblical chronology c. 1700 BC-Judaism is founded by Abraham c. 1500-1000 BC-Middle Elamite period c. 1450-1250 BC - Iron Age I c. 1340-1300 BC - A new capital and religious complex, including a ziggurat, is built by King Untash-Gal at Chogha-Zanbil c. 1250-800 BC - Iron Age II c. 1100 BC - Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon invades Elam, plundering the countryside and destroying Susa; Zoroaster founds a faith whose sacred literature will be the Zend-Avesta; The Iron Age that began more than 400 years before in the Near East moves to Europe 1000-539 BC - Neo-Elamite peri-od

9th century BC - First mention of the Iranians in Assyrian texts 961-931 BC - Rule of Judea's King, Prophet Solomon c 800 BC - Hasanlu, a Mannaean fortified city in northwestern Iran is destroyed

800-550 BC - Iron Age III

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