Arab Conquest and the Early Iranian Islamic Dynasties c

The Muslim Arabs who toppled the Sasanid Empire were inspired by a new religion -Islam.

Although the Koran, the holy book of the new religion, considered people equal regardless their race and social status, the conquerors, especially the Umayyads (the Muslim rulers who succeeded Prophet Mohammad), tended to stress the primacy of Arabs. Despite this, the Iranians rapidly integrated into the new Islamic community. They began to contribute significantly to all branches of Islamic learning and to play an important role in the economic and even political life of the new Muslim Empire. The new caliph came to power due to the Iranian military leader called Abu-Muslim, who led the armies of Saffah against the last of the Umayyad caliphs. Saffah was a great-grandson of Abbas, Prophet Mohammad's uncle, so he called his dynasty Abbasid. The Abbasid dynasty was the most famous in the Islamic world. Abbasid caliphs were the generous patrons of Islamic culture and arts. However, despite the outstanding progress achieved in the cultural field, the military problems of

Early Islamic glassware is represented by this pale-amber jar, today on display in the Ceramics and Pottery Museum in Tehran.

642-661 - Rule of the Rightly Guided Caliphs

644 - Caliph Omar is assassinated by Abu Lolo (plS4) in Medina and succeeded by Osman 656 - Caliph Osman is assassinated in Medina and succeeded by Mohammad's nephew and son-in-law Ali

661 - Imam Ali is assassinated in Kufa

661-750 - Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from Damascus

Bowl from the early-Islamic period is today on display in the Ceramics and Pottery Museum in

Tehran.

Umayyad Empire

Map of the Islamic Expansion

680 - Imam Hossein, Imam AlTs son, is killed in Karbala in Iraq; his martyrdom will be commemorated annually by Shiite Muslims 696 - Arabic becomes the official language of the Islamic world 744-749 - Shiite revolt led by Abu Muslim results in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 - Abbasid Caliphate, ruling from Baghdad 771-814 - Rule of Charlemagne, king of the unified Franks and then the first Holy Roman Emperor 817 - 8th Shiite Imam, Reza, dies of suspected poisoning and is buried in Mashhad 820-873 - Rule oftheTahirid dynasty in Khorasan 838 - Persian social and religious revolutionary Babak is executed by the Abbasid caliph al-Mutasem 867-903 - Rule of the Saffarid dynasty in Sistan

Iran Sistan

Fragment of the Buyid cloth is a remarkable sample of the early-Islamic textile.

Zal And Rudabeh

Miniature from the "Rashida" manuscipt of Shah-Nameh by Ferdowsi shows Zal and Rudabeh pronouncing their marriage vows.

Caravan Pilgrim Under Abbasids

Miniature from "Maqamat" by Hariri shows the pilgrim caravan to Mecca.

Fragment The Arab Conquests Yarmouk

Fragment of the Buyid cloth is a remarkable sample of the early-Islamic textile.

956-1015 - Vladimir the Great of Russia

980-1036 - Ibn Sina, philosopher and physician (p56) 1008 - Mahmud of Ghazni defeats Hindu forces at Peshawar as he works to extend his kingdom from the Tigris to the Ganges

Potteiy from the Ghaznavid and early-Seljuk period demonstrates the prolific use of Kufic letterings like that seen on this glazed ewer, today kept in the Ceramics and Pottery Museum in Tehran.

Miniature from the "Rashida" manuscipt of Shah-Nameh by Ferdowsi shows Zal and Rudabeh pronouncing their marriage vows.

Mending The Marriage

Mending The Marriage

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