Afsharid and Zand Dynasties

After a disastrous but brief Afghan ^

occupation, the country was united JB^^y under the power of Tahmasb Qoli, a chief of the Afshar tribe. He expelled the Afghans in the name of ^^MS^^gj^ surviving Safavid members, but soon dethroned them and was him- jffi ^ fajfe self crowned as Nader Shah. He §iyjj|_ '"^jCjft chose Mashhad as his capital. If

restore the glory and prestige of his country by regaining its for- diamond was among the mer territories and wealth. He treasures brought by Nader

1 to Iran (today in the Jewelry drove the Ottomans from Georgia Museum in Tehran).

Lotfali Khan Portrait

77?e portrait of Kariin Khan ax. aaau:

77?e portrait of Kariin Khan and Armenia and the Russians from the Iranian coast on the Caspian Sea, and restored Iranian sovereignty over Afghanistan. He also took his army on several campaigns into India, bringing back fabulous treasures. Among them were two of the world's largest diamonds, the Mountain

Zand decorates the interior of of Light (now part of the the Pars Museum in Shiraz. Britjsh Crown Jewels) and the

Sea of Light (now in the Jewelry Museum in Tehran). His Indian expedition solved the problem of how to make his empire financially viable. Too powerful and ambitious in the view of some of its neighbors, Nader Shah seemed to have pose a threat to their imperialistic plans. Perhaps a victim to their conspiracy, Nader died from the hands of his own tribesmen, assisted by some Qajar chiefs.

Almost immediately after Nader's murder, the country fell into anarchy. Afshar, Qajar, Afghan, and Zand chieftains struggled for supremacy, until finally Karim Khan Zand defeated his rivals and unified the country (except for Khorasan) under a loose form of central control. Karim Khan's geniality and common sense inaugurated a period of peace and popular contentment. He refused to assume the title of shah and ruled as Vakil al-Roaya (Deputy of the Subjects). Shiraz was made the capital city under his rule.

Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925)

After Karim Khan's death, Agha Mohammad Qajar, who was brought up at the Zand court, gathered a large force of his Qajar tribesmen and embarked upon a war of conquest. He defeated the last Zand ruler and in the same year took Mashhad, which was at the time the residence of the last Afsharid king. In this way, he made himself master of the countiy and founder of the Qajar dynasty. Under his successors - Path Ali Shah, Mohammad Shah, and Naser od-Din Shah - a degree of order and stability returned to the country. However, from the early 19th century, the Qajars began to face pressure from two great world powers, Russia and Britain. Britain's interest in Iran arose from the need to protect trade routes to India, while Russia's came from a desire

1750-1779 - Karim Khan Zand 1756-1763 - Seven Years' Anglo-French War in North America 1757 - Karim Khan places on the throne the infant Shah Ismail III, the grandson of the last official Safavid king, as a figurehead ruler 1762-1796 - Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia 1775-1783 - The American War of Independence

1776 - The American Declaration of Independence

1789-1894 - Lotf Ali Khan Zand

1789 - Bastille falls, French

Revolution begins

1794 - Lotf Ali Khan is defeated by Agha Mohammad Qajar; Agha

Mohammad Khan chooses Tehran as his capital city

Peacock Throne
The Peacock Throne was made during Fath Ali Shah's reign and is the highligh t of the collection of the Jewelry Museum in Tehran.

Qajar Kings:

Agha Mohammad Khan - 1794-1797

Fath Ali Shah - 1797-1834 Mohammad Shah - 1834-1848 Naser od-Din Shah - 1848-1896 Mozaffar od-Din Shah - 1896-1907 Mohammad Ali Shah - 1907-1909 Ahmad Shah - 1909-1923

1796 - Agha Mohammad is formally crowned shah 1803-1815 - Napoleonic Wars 1813 - Treaty of Golestan that stipulates Russia's annexation of former Iranian terretories in Georgia and north of the Caucasus region 1819-1901 - Queen Victoria of Britain

1828 - By the Treaty of Turkmanchai Iran acknowledges Russian sovereignty over the entire area north of the Aras River (territory comprising present-day Armenia and Republic of Azerbaijan)

1844-1850 - Preaching of Bab, the prophet of Bahaism 1851 - Amir Kabir, a prime minister of the Qajars, is assassinated (pl66)

1861-1865 - The American Civil War

1905 - Constitutional Revolution;

First Revolution in Russia

1906 - Mozaffar od-Din Shah signs the first Iranian constitution 1914-1918-World War I

1917 - February and October

Revolutions in Russia

1921 - Coup d'etat of Reza Khan

Iran Afsharid Map

Map of the Afsharid State

Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Crown

Woolen robe embroidered with gold and pearls might have belonged to Amir Kabir - today in the collection of the Jewelry Museum in Tehran.

Schah Naser DinNaser Din Turquoise

The turquoise aigrette from Naser od-Din Shah s reign is decorated with his busts carved gracefully on the rays (today in the collection of the Jewelry Museum in Tehran).

Kamal Molk
Painting by Kamal al-Molk shows the Mirror Hall oi' the Golestan Palace, the main residence of the Qajar kings in Tehran.

1925 - Reza Khan is crowned the first Pahlavi Shah

1934 - Hitler becoms Fuehrer of Germany

1935 - Country's name is changed from Persia to Iran 1939-1945 - World War II

1941 - Britain and the USSR invade Iran and send Reza Shah into exile

1941 - Mohammad Reza Shah ascends the throne

1943 - Tehran Conference of Rosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin

1944 - Reza Shah dies in exile 1951 - Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq becomes Prime Minister; Nationalization of oil from British control 1953 - British Intelligence and the CIA sponsor a coup d'etat to topple Dr. Mossadeq's government 1962-1963 - Beginning of the reform programs known as the White Revolution

1971 - Shah holds in Persepolis an extravagant celebration of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy 1976 - Shah replaces the Islamic calendar with an "imperial" calendar, which began wit i the foundation of the Persian empire more than 25 centuries earlier 1979 - General uprising of the discontent

January 16, 1979 - Shah leaves Iran

The turquoise aigrette from Naser od-Din Shah s reign is decorated with his busts carved gracefully on the rays (today in the collection of the Jewelry Museum in Tehran).

to expand into Iranian territory from the north. In two disastrous wars with Russia, which ended with the Treaty of Golestan and the Treaty of Turkmanchay, Iran lost all its territories in the Caucasus north of the Aras River. Then, in the second half of the 19th century, Russia forced the Qajars to give up all claims to territories in Central Asia. Meanwhile, Britain twice landed troops in Iran to prevent the Qajars from reasserting a claim to Herat, which had been lost after the fall of the Safavids. Under the Treaty of Paris, Iran surrendered to Britain all claims to the territories in present-day Afghanistan. The two great powers also controlled Iran's trade and its internal affairs.

Naser od-Din Shah was the most capable of Qajar kings. He had a long reign, characterized by peace, progress, and prosperity. Many of his reforms were carried out on the initiative of his efficient prime minister, Amir Kabir (pi68). Naser od-Din Shah was assassinated in 1896 by a religious fanatic. His son, Mozaffar od-Din Shah, amiable but afflicted by poor health, is famous for granting to his subjects the first Constitution in the Middle East. Upon Mozaffar od-Din's death, his son, Mohammad Ali Shah, ascended the throne of Persia. Displeased with the curtailment of his powers by the Majles (Parliament), he took the extreme step of bombing it out of existence. As a result, the important commercial city of Tabriz repudiated its allegiance to the shah and, under the leadership of

^attar KTian initiated the Tacquerwork was perhaps the most saitar ivnan, initiated tne notable Qajar art, one of the

Constitutional Revolution. samples of which - the lacquer The Parliament was restored, cover of the Koran manuscript -

is kept today in the Golestan and Mohammad All was palace-museum in Tehran.

Woolen robe embroidered with gold and pearls might have belonged to Amir Kabir - today in the collection of the Jewelry Museum in Tehran.

ELECTED INSTITUTIONS ^

^ UNELECTED INSTITUTIONS

PRESIDENT

SUPREME LEADER

ELECTORATE

ELECTORATE

Dynasties Iran

PRESIDENT

CABINET *

PARLIAMENT

CABINET *

PARLIAMENT

GUARDIAN COUNCIL

SUPREME LEADER

ARMED FORCES

HEAD OF JUDICIARY

EXPEDIENCY COUNCIL

GUARDIAN COUNCIL

KEY:+ Directly elected + Appointed or approved -►Vets candidates

KEY:+ Directly elected + Appointed or approved -►Vets candidates dethroned. In 1909, his son Ahmad, a boy of 11, was crowned. Meanwhile, Reza Khan staged a coup d'etat and took control of all the military forces. After the deposition of the last Qajar Shah, Reza Khan took the throne for himself and started to reign as Reza Shah Pahlavi, having found the last royal dynasty in Iran.

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  • Duenna
    Where is the peacock throne now?
    5 years ago

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