Esfahans Architectural Buildings According to the Date of Their

Construction Sasanid period Because of intensive cultivation and construction in the immediate vicinity of Esfahan through the centuries, little archaeological evidence has come to light. Of the earliest (Sasanid) remains of the city are the Fire Temple pi45) and the piers of the Shahrestan Bridge pl29). Buyid period Several architectural remains from the Buyid period include the magnificent Jorjir Portal pi07) and sections of the Congregational Mosque pp90-97). The splendid Tabarak citadel -...

Ghaznavid Dynasty

The Ghaznavid dynasty was of Turkish origin. It was founded by Saboktekin, a former Turkish slave who was recognized by the Samanids as governor of Ghazna (modem Ghazni, in Afghanistan). As the Samanid dynasty weakened, Saboktekin consolidated his position and expanded his domains as far as the Indian border. His son Mahmud continued the expansionist policy, and during his reign, Ghaznavid power reached its zenith. Mahmud created an empire that stretched from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean. In...

Esfahan Half of the World

A city of immense beauty and unforgettable experiences, Esfahan has been dazzling travelers for ages. Perhaps one of the reasons for this is that most westerners appreciate the truly Persian character that the city has retained. Nesf-e Jahan, Half the World, is a popular rhyme with the name of Esfahan and an example of the praise lavished by the inhabitants and poets on their city. At one time - at the close of the 16th and throughout the 17th centuries - this boast was not as exaggerated as it...

Official Holidays Commemorating the Religious Events

Tasua - Moharram 9** Ashura - Moharram 10 Arbain - Safar 20 Demise of the Prophet of Islam and the Martyrdom of Imam Hasan - Martyrdom of Imam Reza - Safar 29 Birthdays of the Prophet of Islam and of Imam Jafar Sadeq - Rabi al-Avval 17 Demise of Fatemeh - Jumada al-Thaniya 3 Birthday of Imam Ali - Rajab 13 Mabas (Nomination of Mohammad applied to the early Sufis because of their habit of wearing rough wool as a symbol of their asceticism. The Sufis, or Mystics, seek to find the truth of divine...

Iran under Seljuk Rulers

The Seljuks were a clan of the Oghuz Turks, who traced their ancestry to a chieftain named Seljuk. Seljuk's two grandsons, Chaghri Beik and Toghrol Beik, enlisted Persian support to win realms from the Buyid and Ghaznavid rulers. After petitioning the Abbasid caliph for permission, Toghrol Beik was also able to occupy Baghdad. At his death in 1063, Toghrol Beik headed an empire that included Iran and Mesopotamia and held the title King of the East. In 1071, a Seljuk army led by Alp Arslan...

Iranian New Year Nowruz

The greatest Iranian holiday, Nowruz literally new day , is celebrated on March 20 or 21 and commemorates the entrance of the sun into the sign of Aries at the vernal equinox. The Iranians believe that Nowruz was instituted by King Jamshid it is known for certain to have been celebrated for at least 2,500 years. It is the only festival of ancient Persia that has not been displaced by Islamic holidays. The Iranians never fail to celebrate it, except when the movable lunar calendar of Islam...

Achaemenid Empire B

Susa Persia

Cyrus the Great was the first important Achaemenid ruler. By the time he became king, Persia was already a large domain, but Cyrus aspired to nothing less than the conquest of the entire known world. In a campaign that lasted for less than two years, he took Elam, Media, Lydia, and several Greek cities on the Ionian coast. Having strengthened his power, Cyrus besieged and captured Babylon and released the Jews who had been held captive there, thus earning immortality in the Book of Isaiah. His...

Haft Sin Painting

Kashan Iran

The greatest Sufi mystic and poet in Persian literature, Mowlana Jalal od-Din The miniature shows the meeting of Leili and Majnun in the desert - the illustration to the Mohammad Rumi is famous for his passionate lyrics and for his didactic epic Mathnavi-ye Manavi Spiritual Couplets , which widely influenced Muslim mystical thought and literature. After Rumi's death, his disciples were organized as the Mowlaviyeh order, known in the West as the Whirling Dervishes. Saadi, whose real name was...

Copyright Rowzaneh Publication

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this book is as up-to-date as possible at the time of going to press. However, details such as telephone numbers, opening hours, prices, and travel information are liable to...

The Seljuk Kings in Esfahan

For a brief period in 1034, Masud I, son of the brilliant Ghaznavid ruler Sultan Mahmud, held Esfahan. However, in 1047, Togh-ril Beik Seljuk successfully besieged it for a year and then made it the capital of his domain. For the first time in its history, Esfahan was raised to the status of the empire's major city. Founder of the Seljuk dynasty, Toghrol Beik spent twelve years of his life in Esfahan and succeeded in expanding the city by careful planning. The city prospered even more under...

Hellenistic Period BC

Revolt Ardashir

In his world-conquering campaign, Alexander hoped for a fruitful union of the Europeans with the peoples of the Middle East. In the effort to reach this goal, Alexander married Roxana, daughter of the most powerful of the Bactrian chiefs, and commanded 80 of his top officers and 10,000 of his soldiers to marry Persian women in a mass wedding at Susa. However, his plans to consummate the union of the Greek and Iranian peoples ended when Alexander was struck with fever and died in Babylon. His...

Median Empire BC

Medes And Persian Empire Map

The Median Empire started with Deioces's rule. He organized his realm into several provinces and created a strong army to stop the Assyrians. The military genius of his son and successor, Phraortes, helped the Medes defeat the Assyrians. After Phraortes, there was a short period of Scythian domination over the Medes until they were overthrown by Cyaxares, who induced Scythian kings to get so drunk that they were then easily slain. Cyaxares, the greatest king of the Medes, reorganized the army...

Early Civilizations in Iran

1000 Bce Judaism

Man's presence on the Iranian plateau during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages has not yet been properly studied. Life during the Neolithic period, however, is much better known. Considerable geological and natural evidence has proven that Iran was home to one of mankind's first major cultures, ahead of every other part of the world except Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Significant shifts in tool manufacture, settlement patterns, and subsis-tence methods, including domestica- S tion of plants...

Elam BC

Persepolis Palace Darius

A brilliant ancient culture came into being on the Iranian territory - Elam, The Land of Gods. The origin of the Elamites is unclear. Their earliest kings reigned around 2700 BC. These early rulers were succeeded by the Awan Shustar dynasty, which was then replaced by a new ruling house, the Simash dynasty. About the middle of the 19th century BC, power in Elam passed to a new dynasty, that of Eparti. is the only three-dimensional example of worship in progress in the ancient Middle East now in...

Mongol Timurid and Turkman Rulers in Esfahan

When the Mongol hordes swept through Iran, a great battle was fought outside Esfahan in 1228, and the city was captured. At that time, Esfahan lost a significant part of its population, along with its importance as a first city of Iran. Its buildings, however, were spared, and the city continued to enjoy reasonable prosperity. Under Oljeitu, the Il-Khanid ruler, many great structures were built in the city. The Mongols' short rule in Esfahan was followed by that of the Injuid and Mo-zaffarid...

Afsharid and Zand Dynasties

Lotfali Khan Portrait

After a disastrous but brief Afghan occupation, the country was united JB y under the power of Tahmasb Qoli, a chief of the Afshar tribe. He expelled the Afghans in the name of MS gj surviving Safavid members, but soon dethroned them and was him- jffi fajfe self crowned as Nader Shah. He iyjj _ ' jCjft chose Mashhad as his capital. If Nader's ultimate goal was to '' f ' his country by regaining its for- diamond was among the mer territories and wealth. He treasures brought by Nader 1 to Iran...

Arab Conquest and the Early Iranian Islamic Dynasties c

Fragment The Arab Conquests Yarmouk

The Muslim Arabs who toppled the Sasanid Empire were inspired by a new religion -Islam. Although the Koran, the holy book of the new religion, considered people equal regardless their race and social status, the conquerors, especially the Umayyads the Muslim rulers who succeeded Prophet Mohammad , tended to stress the primacy of Arabs. Despite this, the Iranians rapidly integrated into the new Islamic community. They began to contribute significantly to all branches of Islamic learning and to...

Arsanjani To Jamai

Ali Miniature

The last of the great historic religions, Islam literally means submission to God, Arabic Allah regulates the entire life of the Muslims. Muslims those who have surrendered to the faith believe in God, who is viewed as the sole creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world. The will of God, to which man must submit, is made known through the sacred scriptures, the Koran, which God revealed to his messenger, Mohammad, and in which there is no word other than of Divine origin. In Islam, Mohammad...

Mausoleums and Imamzadehs

Imamzadeh Mausoleum Isfahan

Shahshahan Shrine 118 Harun Velayat 118 Darb-e Imam 119 Sample of the three-dimensional paintings inside the book Chahar-Bagh Imamzadeh Shah Zeid 119 Imamzadeh Ismail 120 Imamzadeh Jafar 120 Imamzadeh Ahmad 121 Al-Rashid Billah Mausoleum 122 Baba Qasem Mausoleum Nezam al-Molk Tomb 122 Shrine of Seti Fatemeh and the Princes 123 Saeb Mausoleum 123 Kamal od-Din Ismail Mausoleum 123 Takht-e Fulad Lesanal-Arz 124 Baba Rokn od-Din Shrine 124 Valeh Tekiyeh 124 Mir Tekiyeh 124 Mausoleum of Aqa Hossein...

Shah Abbas I and the Golden Age of Esfahans History

Shah Abbas

The history of Esfahan cannot be separated from the name of Shah Abbas the Great, the ruler who chose it as a capital in 1598 and spent forty-two years of his life toward its beautifica-tion and eminence. Brought up in Herat, the great cultural and intellectual center of Iran in the 16th century, since childhood Shah Abbas had been influenced by its magnificent architecture, painting, and calligraphy. The young prince showed astounding precocity as a connoisseur of the arts. When he was seven...

Afghans in Esfahan

Photos From Kashan Iran Rose

At the end of the Safavid reign, the country and its capital were torn apart by courtiers, who plundered the state treasury with the Shah's silent consent. The resulting pressure was placed on the common people who had to pay increased taxes. A series of rebellions swept through Iran. In 1710, Mir Oveis revolted against the Safavid governor of Qandahar and managed to expel him from the city. Mir Oveis was succeeded by his son Mahmud. For several years, Mahmud and his followers sacked the...

H U tJVJ LS

Kashan Safavid Ceramic

Nastaliq, a combination of Naskh and Taliq. Nastaliq is closely connected to Persian poetry and has played an important role in communicating poetic concepts to readers. Under the Timurid and the Safavid rulers, calligraphy experienced its highest stage of development. By the 16th century, Shiraz was among the forerunners of calligraphic study and production in the Islamic world. In the 17th century, it was followed by Esfahan and then by Qazvin. The most famous calligraphers of the Safavid...

Introducing Esfahan

Chahar Bagh Isfahan

Esfahan - Half of the World 53 History of Esfahan 54-63 Arts of Esfahan 64-69 Naqsh-e Jahan Square 78-79 Royal Palaces 80-89 Mosques 90-112 Minarets 113-114 Madresehs 114-117 Mausoleums and Imamzadehs 118-125 The Zayandeh-Rud and Bridges 126-129 Julfa and Churches 130-133 Great Bazaar 134-137 Old Mansions 138-139 Museums 140-141 Esfahan's Environs 142-151 Map of Esfahan 152-159 Imam Royal Mosque, Ali Qapu Palace, pp80-83 Congregational Mosque, pp90-97 Chehel Sotun, pp84-87 photo by Naser...

Practical Guide

Where to Stay 236 What and Where to Eat 244 What and Where to Buy Bibliography and Acknowledgements 264 Fragment of polychrome tile-work of Aqa Bozorg Mosque and Madreseh in Kashan Fragment of polychrome tile-work of Aqa Bozorg Mosque and Madreseh in Kashan Plaster carvings inside the Congregational Mosque of Ardestan Jalali Calendar 25 Fourteen Infallible People According to Siiiith Beliefs 36 Official Holidays Commemorating the Religious Events 38 Muslim Calendar 38 Iranian Armenian Churches...

Jews

The Iranian Jewish community is one of the oldest in the world, having descended from the Jews who remained in the region following the Babylonian captivity under Cyrus the Great. For many centuries, a large and flourishing Jewish community existed in Esfahan. In fact, Esfahan itself came into being when the town of Yahudiyeh Jewish city , merged with Jay. Over the centuries, the Jews of Iran became physically, culturally, and linguistically indistinguishable from the non-Jewish population....

The Jalali Calendar

The Jalali calendar was presented at the court of Malek Shah Seljuk in 1079. Its author, the famous mathematician and poet Omar Khayyam p47 , computed the length of the year as 365.24219858156 days. His calculations approached the accuracy of the late 16th-century Gregorian calendar. The length of a modern year decreases in the sixth decimal within a typical human lifetime and is 365.242190 days. one of the devices that helped Omar Khayyam in his calculations. 1071 - The Battle of Manzikert...

Agriculture products

Sialk Kashan Painting

Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar Exports - commodities petroleum 85 , carpets, fruits and nuts, iron and steel, chemicals GDP purchasing power parity - 456 billion 2002 est. Annual growth 4.2 Inflation rate 17.3 for consumer prices 2002 est. - kmfeg gt i - kmfeg gt i r.4 . . s c. 8000-7500 BC - Pre-Pottery Neolithic period c. 8000 BC - First settlements on the Iranian plateau the earliest domestication of sheep and goats in Iran c. 5000...

Mongol Rulers of Iran

Ismail Safavid Leader

Mongol occupation was disastrous to Iran. Numerous cities were razed, and a large number of people particularly males were killed. The Kharezm-Shahs could not oppose the Mongol hordes led by Genghis Khan. The last Kharezm-Shahs's prince, Jalal od-Din, tried to restore the empire but failed to unite the Iranian regions, although by that time Genghis Khan, who had withdrawn to Mongolia, was dead. Iran was left divided between Mongol agents and local adventurers, both of whom profited from the...

Iranian Armenian Churches

Exposed Brick Domes

The primeval Armenian churches in Iran were built starting from the 4th-5th centuries AD. They were based on a simple, or hypostyle basilica plan. In general, the basilica church included a long hall which stretched from east to west. The entrance to the church was on the western side, and an altar with flanking ambries was located on the eastern side. Gradually, these simple churches were extended on four sides by adding arcades and terraces along their outer walls. The hypostyle church...

Fourteen Infallible People According to Shiite Beliefs

Imam Hossein

Mohammad, the Islamic Prophet Fatemeh, Mohammad's daughter, the holy lady of Islam Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shiite Imam, the fourth Muslim caliph, Mohammad's cousin and son-in-law Hasan ibn Ali, the second Shiite Imam, son of Ali and Fatemeh Hossein ibn Ali, the third Shiite Imam, the most favorite character of Iranian Shiite Muslims, younger son of Ali and Fatemeh Ali ibn Hossein, the fourth Shiite Imam, son of Imam Hossein, has two sobriquets Sajjad prostrator and Zein al-Abedin the best...

Ferdowsi and Shah Nameh

Ferdowsi Rostam

Ferdowsi is the author of Shah-Nameh, the epic history of the Iranian past, which has often been called the Iliad of the East. Ferdowsi was born in Tus in Khorasan. He completed his great poem in 1010 and presented it to Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavid. Ferdowsi is reported to have secured the Sultan's acceptance of the poem through the good offices of Mahmud's minister, Ahmad ibn Hasan Meimandi. Unfortunately, Mah-mud disgraced his minister soon afterwards and, due to his connection with Meimandi,...

Muslim Calendar

Persian Mosaic Design

Based on the lunar year, the Muslim calendar dates from the migration Hegira of the Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. According to this calendar, the actual beginning of a month depends upon the physical sighting of the moon and not merely on astronomical calculations. If the sky is overcast, and the new moon is not visible within a territory, the previous month is allowed to run to 30 days instead of the usual 29 days. Because of the inconsistencies in the number of days in a...

Kashan

History of Kashan 164 Arts of Kashan 172 Traditional Houses Brujerdi House 175 Tabatabai House 176 Abbasian House 177 Ameriha House 177 Fin Garden 178 Aqa Bozorg Mosque and Meydan Mosque 182 Tabriziha Mosque 183 Imamzadeh Ibrahim 184 Abu Lolo Mausoleum 184 Imamzadeh Panjeh Shah 185 Imamzadeh Mir Neshaneh Imamzadeh Shah Yalan 185 Imamzadeh Habib ibn Musa and the Tomb of Shah Abbas 186 Imamzadeh s Taher and Mansur 186 Mausoleum of Sultan Mir Ahmad 186 Chehel Dokhtaran Shrine 186 Khajeh Taj od-Din...

Nezam alMolk

Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali, titled for his merits Nezam al-Molk Arabic Order of the Kingdom , was a Persian vizier of the Turkish Seljuk Sultans, Alp Arslan and Malek Shah. As a minister of these two most remarkable Seljuk kings, Nezam al-Molk ruled the empire that stretched from Syria to Afghanistan for thirty years. He is also well remembered for a network of the Nezamiyeh madresehs that he established in many major towns throughout the empire and for his large treatise on kingship, Siasat-Nameh...

Esfahans Environs

Kashan Stained Glass

Fire Temple 145 Khuzan Mosque 145 Pir Bakran 145 Oshtorjan Mosque 147 Rahrovan Minaret 148 Dashti Mosque 148 Gar Mosque and Minaret Stained-glass window in the Abbasian House in Kashan Stained-glass window in the Abbasian House in Kashan Aziran Mosque 148 Ziar Minaret 148 Bersian Mosque and Minaret Kaj Mosque 149 Hafshuyeh Mosque 149 Pigeon Towers 150

IlKhanid and Mozaffarid periods

Maqsud Kashan

Vivid art examples of these periods can be observed in some unrivaled masterpieces of the Congregational Mosque pp90-97 Shaking pi44 , Dar al-Ziyafeh, Dardasht, and Towqchi Minarets pll3 , Mausoleums of Baba Qasem and Sultan Bakht-e Aqa pi22 , and Imamzadeh Jafar pi20 . In the environs of Esfahan, the mausoleum of Pir Bakran ppl 45-146 , Congregational Mosque of Oshtorjan pl47 , Dashti, Aziran, Kaj, and Hafshuyeh Mosques ppl48-149 belong to these periods. Piers of the Sharestan Bridge have...

Avicenna

Ibn Sina Isfahan Women

Ibn Sina, better known in the West as Avicenna, was born in 980 in Afshana, near Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. Bukhara was at that time the capital of the Samanid rulers, for whom Ibn Sina's father worked. Ibn Sina grew up in a bilingual environment his native language was Persian, but the language of his studies was Arabic. The education provided for him by his father was very wide-ranging, encompassing both Muslim religious studies and secular subjects from the Iranian, Greek, and Indian...

Ancient History of Esfahan

Esfahan's earliest history is shrouded in mystery and does not emerge with clarity before the beginning of the Islamic period. Naturally, however, legends abound. One of these calls the half-mythical King Jamshid the city's founder, while the other attributes the construction of the Tabarak citadel, the core of the ancient city, to King Key-Kavus of the legendary Kiyanid dynasty. There is no certainty as to the origin of the city's name either. It is believed to be derived from a Pahlavi word,...

Religions

Moharram 39 Religious Institutions 40 Non-Muslim Minorities Christians 41 Jews 43 Geometric calligraphy on the walls of the Aqa Nur Mosque Geometric calligraphy on the walls of the Aqa Nur Mosque Persian Language 44 Persian Literature 44 Persian Poetry 44 Ferdowsi and Shah-Nameh 44 Omar Khayyam 47 Nezami 47 Rumi 47 Saadi 47 Hafez 47