One State

I n Transylvania the revolutionary spirit which gripped much of Europe in the years leading up to 1848 was entangled with the Hungarian revolution, which in Transylvania was led by Hungarian poet Sandor I'etofi. Hungarian revolutionaries sought an end to Habsburg domination of Hungary. Concurrently, Romanian revolutionaries demanded their political emancipation, equality and the abolition of serfdom.

The Austrian authorities struck a deal with Transylvania's Romanians, promising them national recognition in return for joining forces with them against the Hungarian revolutionaries in Transylvania. Thus Transylvanian Romanians fought against and enacted revenge upon 'Transylvanian Hungarians for what was seen as centuries of mistreatment. Russian intervention finally quashed the Hungarian revolutionaries, ending a revolution that had shocked all sides by its escalation into civil war.

In its aftermath, the region fell under direct rule of Austria-Hungary from Budapest. Ruthless 'Magyarisation' followed: Hungarian was established as the official language and any Romanians who dared oppose the regime - such as the Memorandumists of 1892, a group of intellectual and political figures who voiced their opposition to Austro-Hungarian rule in a memorandum - were severely punished.

By contrast Wallachia and Moldavia prospered. In 1859, with French support, Alexandra loan Cuza was elected to the thrones of Moldavia and Wallachia, creating a national state known as the United Romanian Principalities on 11 December 1861. This was renamed Romania in 1862.

The reform-minded Cuza was forced to abdicate in 1866 by mutinous army officers, and his place was taken by the Prussian prince Carol I. With Russian assistance, Romania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. After the 1877-78 War of Independence,

The web site for Constantin Roman's excellent book Blouse Romaine (www.blouseromaine .com), an incredible compendium of notable female personalities in Romania's history, contains many fascinating excerpts.

If you're bringing the kids along to Moldova pick up Patricia Sheehan's Moldova (2000), the 20th in the Cultures of the World series. Written for 9th to 12th graders, it contains lots of historical facts.

1431

1453

Vlad Tepej (Vlad the Impaler) Is born. He becomes the ruler of | Wallachia, and is famous for impaling his victims on wooden spikes.

The fall of Constantinople. The Ottomans block trade on the Black Sea and Romania's isolation deepens.

WWI » bif itlri IIII III It III a nil: WAIIHIOII QUEEN

IIibk' I'i iinly en an In Romania and that is the queen.' That is how a French diplomat ili'M illiril Oiirrii Marie of Romania whose diplomatic experience at the Paris Peace Conference In lull* hnktrrrd Romania's flagging image abroad, raised its political profile and assured her legrndary status.

Qurrn Marie (1875 1938), the granddaughter of Britain's Queen Victoria, married Ferdinand I (t HfiS I 'ill), heir to the Romanian throne, in 1892 when she was 17. Despite widespread horror in Britain at her mismatch to a prince of a 'semibarbaric' country, Marie developed a strong kinship with Romania, declaring, 'My love for my country Romania is my religion'.

following an alleged love affair with American aristocrat Waldorf Astor, she knuckled down to twisting her tongue around the Romanian language and acquainting herself with Romanian politics.

During the second Balkan War (1913) the princess ran a cholera hospital for Romanian soldiers on the Bulgarian side of the Danube. In 1914 Ferdinand I was crowned king and Marie became queen.

Despite proving herself to be a 'viable political force', Queen Marie remained the 'people's princess' throughout her reign. At the outbreak of WWI she wrote her first book, My Country, to raise funds for the British Red Cross in Romania.

Prior to her evacuation to la;i in 1916, she worked in hospitals in Bucharest, distributing food and cigarettes to wounded soldiers. In ta§i she set about reorganising the appallingly makeshift hospitals.

After she represented Romania at the peace conference in Paris, the French press dubbed her the 'business queen'. A mother of six, she wrote over 100 diaries from 1914 until her death in 1938. During her lifetime 15 of her books were published. Her autobiography, The Story of My Life, appeared in two volumes in 1934-35.

Queen Marie is buried in Curtea de Argej (pi85). Her heart, originally encased in a gold casket and buried in Balcic (in today's Bulgaria) is safeguarded in Bucharest's National History Museum.

Dobrogea became part of Romania. Under the consequent Treaty of San Stefano and the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Romanian independence was recognised. In 1881 it was declared a kingdom and on 22 May 1881 Carol I was crowned the first king of Romania.

Ludan Mies 1994 WWI & GREATER ROMANIA

film An Unforgettable Through shrewd political maneuvering, Romania greatly benefited from Si/mnjer is set in 1925 WWI. Despite Romania having formed a secret alliance with Austria-in,i disputed area near Hungary in 1883, it began WWI with neutrality. In 1916, the government the Romanian-Bulgarian under Ion Bratianu, declared war on Austria-Hungary. Its objective was border. Romance and to seize Transylvania from Austria-Hungary.

Intrigue reign in this The defeat of Austria-Hungary in 1918 paved the way for the formation great little film. of modern Romania. Bessarabia, the area east of the Prut River which had been part of Moldavia until 1812 when it was taken by the Russians, was joined to Romania. Likewise Bucovina, which had been in Austrian-Hungarian hands since 1775, was also reunited with Romania. Part of the Austrian-Hungarian Banat which had been incorporated in Romania, was also handed over. Furthermore, Transylvania was finally united with Romania. Hence, at the end of WWI Romania - now known as Greater

1467_ 1600_

Stephen the Great defeats the Hungarian army at Baia; itis I Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia are united for 15 months

Hungary's last attempt to conquer Moldova. | under Mihai Viteazul.

Romania - more than doubled its territory (from 120,000 to 295,000 sq km) and its population (from 7.5 to 16 million). The acquisition of this new territory was ratified by the Triple Entente powers in 1920 under I he Treaty of Trianon.

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