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On Clowns (1993) is a cutting rant on Romanian dictatorship by Norman Manea, who was deported to a Trans-dniestr concentration camp when he was five years old.

The Solitude of Collectivism (1993) by David Kideckel paints a fascinating protrait of the transformation and destruction of traditional village life during the Communist regime.

I tiii ., i m ^ ,.. i i mi I In ii'iiill.s of this Romanian-Nazi alliance . n, ,.i in »un,f .nil uni '(III.0(H) Romanian Jews - mainly from newly j, m i h . ,, ii.i.i .Iml 10,000 Roma (Gypsies) deported to transit ..(¡i ,« ,,, l. iii .iliiir .li and murdered in Auschwitz. After the war, Milium-», h it-it* I in ni'il over to the Soviet authorities who condemned him in .1. iili in ,i show trial. Bessarabia fell back into Soviet hands.

s . Ihr war went badly and the Soviet army approached Romania's bnnli-iN, a rare national consensus was achieved. On 23 August 1944 .ni opportunistic Romania suddenly changed sides again, capturing the !>.!, 159 German soldiers who were stationed in Romania at the time, and declared war on Nazi Germany. By this dramatic act, Romania salvaged its independence and shortened the war. By 25 October the Romanian and Soviet armies had driven the Hungarian and German forces from Transylvania, replacing the valued territory back under Romanian control. The costs, however, were appalling: 500,000 Romanian soldiers died fighting for the Axis powers, and another 170,000 died after Romania joined the Allies.

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