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Dubrovnik Nosnja

Odjeveni u tri metra suknene tkanine

Pri susretu s tradicijskim nosnjama ruralnih podrucja u dubrovackoj okolici suvremeni ljudi redovito zapaze ''neobicne'' muske hlace, popularno zvane ''gace'' ili ''siroke gace''. Dio su tradicijske nosnje Konavala, Zupe, Primorja i istocnog dijela poluotoka Peljesca. Mozemo ih vidjeti u etnografskim zbirkama i pri nastupima folklornih grupa iz tih podrucja. Ranije su bile prisutne i na otoku Mljetu. Radi atraktivnog izgleda ''gace'' su postale neizostavni dio glumaCkih kostima na Dubrovackim ljetnim igrama, u predstavama u kojima se pojavljuju dubrovacki seljaci. Obicno se koriste u renesansnim komedijama Marina Drzica. Moderni kazalisni kostimografi kroje ih sire u odnosu na originalni izgled, cime nastoje pojacati saljivi dojam koji ostavljaju na promatraca.

''Siroke gace'' su zapravo vrlo jednostavnog kroja. Nacinjene su od tri metra tamne (crne, modre ili smede) suknene tkanine. Sezu od pojasa do koljena. Na nogu se pri njihovom oblacenju prvo navlace bijele vunene carape koje sezu nesto vise od koljena, tako da ih gornji dio ''gaca'' malo prekrije. Navedena velika kolicina platna je krojena tako da su bocne strane — nogavice — krojene klasicno poput ''lovackih'' hlaca, ali se na njih prisiva siroki sredisnji dio koji pada kao vreca izmedu nogu. ''Gace'' se stezu platnenom uzicom i pritom se stvara mnostvo nabora.

Kada i kako su se takve hlace pojavile na dubrovackom podrucju? Stoljetna trgovacka povezanost Dubrovacke Republike s golemim Osmanskim carstvom, osobito sa susjednim dinarskim kopnenim zaledem i istocnim Sredozemljem, utjecala je da su muskarci u dubrovackim selima davno prihvatili levantinski tip nosnje. Tako likovni prikazi s pocetka 19. stoljeca prikazuju dubrovacke seljake u nosnji koja je vrlo slicna danasnjem sacuvanom obliku. Slicno krojene hlace nosili su muslimanski velikasi u bosanskim i hercegovackim gradovima, ali i krscansko stanovnistvo u tamosnjim selima. Takve su se hlace nosile i na grckim otocima na kojima su pristajali dubrovacki brodovi. Na Mljetu su siroke hlace nazivali ''vlaskim gacama'', podsjecajuci da su donesene iz dinarskog zaleda. Muskarci, u primorskim podrucjima, u susjedstvu Dubrovacke Republike, primjerice na otoku Korculi i u Boki kotorskoj, takoder su nosili slicno krojene hlace.

Za razliku od zenskih nosnji, koje su vrlo prepoznatljive za pojedine regije, muske nosnje su prilicno ujednacene od Konavala sve do Peljesca. U tome je vjerojatno imala udjela Dubrovacka Republika koja je u odredenim razdobljima zakonima propisivala odijevanje stanovnistva. Republici je vjerojatno bilo vazno da se njezini muski seoski podanici, koji su stoljecima zivjeli u granicnom podrucju s Osmanskim carstvom i morali obavljati odredene vojnicke poslove, razlikuju po odjeci od susjeda s druge strane granice. Stanovnici pojedinih dijelova Dubrovackog primorja medusobno su se prepoznavali po boji pojasa koji se nosio preko ''sirokih gaca'', pa su postojali ''zutopasi'', ''crvenopasi'' i ''zelenopasi'', sto podsjeca na vojnicku organizaciju. Medutim, malo je vjerojatno da je Vlada Republike propisivala kroj muskih hlaca.

Vecina seljaka na dubrovackom podrucju nosila je ''siroke gace'' u 19. stoljecu. Osnovni materijal je bila domaca vuna, ali su se ljeti nosile i laganije tkanine, a u svecanijim prilikama finije, uvozne. Medutim, prodorom gradanske mode na selo, posljednjih dvadeset godina 19. i u prvoj polovici 20. stoljeca ''siroke gace'' su polako pocele nestajati. Osnovna im je mana bila sto su bile neprakticne za svakodnevnu upotrebu. Pomalo je neobjasnjivo da su toliku kolicinu tkanine muskarci morali nositi pri svakodnevnim poljskim radovima na vrelom ljetnom mediteranskom suncu. Ipak, cinjenica da su ostale dio najsvecanije nosnje svjedoci o tome da su ''siroke gace'' bile duboko usadene u estetske likovne kriterije seljaka. Najdulje su se u svakodnevnoj upotrebi zadrzale u Konavlima. Tamo su se u 20. stoljecu uglavnom izradivale u crnoj boji, cime se nastojalo pribliziti tamnoj gradskoj odjeci.

Dressed in three metres of cloth fabric

Pise / By: Jaksa Primorac

When getting acquainted with traditional folk costumes of rural areas in the Dubrovnik surroundings, people always notice the «unusual» man trousers, popularly called «pants» or «the wide pants». They present a part of traditional garment of the regions of Konavle, Zupa, Primorje and the eastern part of the Peljesac Peninsula. They can be seen in ethnographic collections and at folk performances of ensembles from the region. One could also find them on the Island of Mljet. The attractive "pants" have become essential part of the actors' costumes in the Dubrovnik Summer Festival performances in which the Dubrovnik peasants take part. They are usually used in the renaissance comedies of Marin Drzic. The modern costume designers make them wider than they originally are, thus accentuating their comic appearance.

«The wide pants» cut is actually very simple. They are made of three metres of dark (black, deep blue or brown) cloth reaching from the waist to the knees. Before putting them on, men first draw on the white stockings made of wool that reach a bit above the knees, so that the upper part of «the pants» covers them a bit. The huge quantity of cloth is cut so that the sides — the legs - look like classical «hunting» trousers, but with attached wide central part falling like a sack between the legs. «The pants» are tied by a linen string, which makes plenty of folds.

When did and how the first trousers of the kind appear in the Dubrovnik region? The hundred-years long connections of the Dubrovnik Republic with the great Ottoman Empire, particularly with the neighbouring Dinaric hinterlands and the Eastern Mediterranean, were the reason why the Dubrovnik peasants adopted the Levantine costume long time ago. The early 19th century paintings present the Dubrovnik peasants dressed in the costumes very much like those preserved up the present day. The Moslem peers in the towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina used to wear trousers of similar style, and so did the Christian inhabitants in the villages. The trousers of the kind were also worn on the Greek islands visited by the Dubrovnik ships. Such wide pants were called «the Vlach pants» on the Island of Mljet, thus reminding of their Dinaric hinterlands origin. Men in the neighbouring costal regions of the Dubrovnik Republic, for instance on the Island of Korcula and in the Bay of Kotor, also wore a similar type of trousers.

Unlike women's costumes that are very recognizable in particular regions, men costumes are quite uniform from Konavle as far as Peljesac region. That was probably influenced by the Dubrovnik Republic, which legislated the dress code at certain periods. It was of considerable importance for the Republic that its male subjects, who for centuries lived in the region bordering with the Ottoman Empire and who had to be soldiers, wear different clothes from that of their neighbours on the other side of the border. Residents of various parts of the Dubrovnik coastal area wore different colour belts over «the wide pants». Thus there were «the yellow belts», «the red belts» and «the green belts», reminding of a military organization. However, it is hard to believe that the Republic authorities legislated the cut of the male trousers.

A majority of the peasants in the Dubrovnik region wore «the wide pants» in the 19th century. The main material was the domestic wool, but lighter fabrics were worn in summer and on festive occasions made of finer imported fabrics. However, when in the last quarter of the 19th and first half of the 20th century the urban fashion spread in the villages, «the wide pants» started to disappear slowly. Their main flaw was the impracticality for every day use. It is quite inexplicable how the men could wear such a huge quantity of fabric working in the field in the hot Mediterranean sun. Nevertheless, the fact that «the wide pants» remained a part of the most festive costume proves that they had been deeply implanted in the visual aesthetic criteria of the countryfolk. It is in Konavle region that they remained in every day use for the longest period. Their colour was mainly black, which is how they attempted to imitate the dark town clothes.

"THE WIDE PANTS"

- old Dubrovnik village trousers

Pise / By: Marija Puhiera

Broncani ^plivac

Mihovil Spanja, 21 - godisnji Dubrovcanin, osvajac triju medalja na Paralimpijskim igrama u Ateni

Vec je ispunio svoje sportske snove i zahvaljujuci plivanju posjetio svih pet svjetskih kontinenata. Nakon sto je medaljama s europskih i svjetskih prvenstava pridodao tri bronce s Paralimpijskih igara u Ateni, 21 - godisnji Dubrovcanin Mihovil Spanja rasterecen nastavlja svoj plivacki put, na kojem mu najvecu podrsku pruza obitelj. Uz plivanje, student je komunikologije na Sveucilistu u Dubrovniku i Vise trenerske skole u Zagrebu, studija za koje vjeruje kako ce mu pomoci nakon sportske karijere. Jos je mlad i naravno ni ne pomislja stati, plivat ce sve dok mu to bude predstavljalo zadovoljstvo, ali vec istice da bi volio cijeli zivot ostati u sportu, bilo kao trener ili osoba koja ce buducim narastajima omoguciti kvalitetne uvjete za vrhunske rezultate i promovirati njihove uspjehe.

- Sretan sam sto sam relativno brzo uspio ostvariti svoj sportski san i u Ateni se cak tri puta popeti na olimpijsko postolje. Bilo je predivno gledati zastavu svoje drzave uz zastave svjetskih sila poput Kine, SAD-a i Australije, s kojima se Hrvatska ne moze usporedivati po ulaganju u sport i stvaranju baze - kaze Mihovil o najvecem uspjehu karijere.

Uvijek je sebi, istice, postavljao visoke ciljeve u zivotu, pa tako i u sportu, a od prvih je nastupa za reprezentaciju vjerovao kako moze doseci najvrjednije medalje.

- Prije sest godina poceo sam raditi s mojim sadasnjim trenerom Deanom Konticem, koji me od prvog dana uvjeravao da posjedujem talent za ogroman uspjeh na svjetskoj sceni. Zato sam bio nevjerojatno motiviran i ucinio sam sve da svoje mogucnosti dokazem u bazenu.

Plivanje ima ogroman znacaj u njegovu zivotu. Prije je proplivao nego prohodao - s dvije i pol godine prvi je put samostalno zaplivao u moru.

- Kao sestomjesecno dijete obolio sam od djecje paralize, poliomijelitisa. Istog dana, kad sam s roditeljima cuo dijagnozu, pocela je moja borba s bolescu. Najveci dio rehabilitacije proveo sam na terapijama u bazenu ili u moru. Kad sam napunio sest godina, upisao sam skolu plivanja u Jugu. Jedno vrijeme trenirao sam i vaterpolo, ujedno i moju najvecu sportsku ljubav, kojom se i danas bavim u slobodno vrijeme.

Sluzbeno je profesionalnu plivacku karijeru poceo 1998. na Otvorenom prvenstvu Hrvatske u Rijeci. Te godine, na Medunarodnom mitingu u Bratislavi, isplivao je sedam medalja.

- Ana Srsen, proslavljena i najpoznatija hrvatska paralimpijka, nagovorila me na ulazak u ovaj sport, na odluku zbog koje nikad nisam ni najmanje pozalio. Kao 21-godisnjak vec sam sedam godina clan reprezentacije i mogu slobodno reci da sam vise nego uspio u sportu.

Ova godina za Mihovila je manje naporna od prethodne jer u kalendaru nema velikih natjecanja poput Olimpijskih igara, svjetskih i europskih prvenstava.

- Na Mediteranske igre u Almeriji odlazim krajem lipnja, u rujnu me ocekuje Svjetski kup u Rio de Janeiru, a sezonu bi trebao zakljuciti otvorenim prvenstvom SAD-a u prosincu, na kojem kanim srusiti rekord u barem jednoj od svoje tri udarne discipline. Pripremam se za iducu godinu, kojoj bih zelio ponovno osvojiti jednu od medalja na Svjetskom prvenstvu. Brojna priznanja u posljednjim godinama promijenila su ga, ali, dodaje, u prihvatljivoj mjeri.

Prije je proplivao nego prohodao

- Nagrade su potvrda koliko se cijene moji uspjesi i zbog toga sam jako ponosan. No, one su i jedna vrsta odgovornosti da nastavim i dalje ostvarivati uspjehe.

Odnos prema sportu osoba s invaliditetom, istice Mihovil, od njegovih pocetaka do danas u nasoj se zemlji znatno promijenio, naravno na bolje.

- Dobivamo sve vise medijske paznje i prostora. Pokazuje to i osvrt legende hrvatskog sportskog novinarstva Borisa Mutica, koji je moj uspjeh u Ateni stavio na drugo mjesto najvecih uspjeha Hrvata u povijesti Igara, tik do Janice Kostelic i njezinog pokera odlicja u Salt Lake Cityju. Kljucna osoba u popularizaciji sportasa s invaliditetom zasigurno je Ana Srsen. Ponosan sam sto me je u profesionalno plivanje uvela upravo ona i sto sam danas sportas al pair legendama hrvatskog sporta poput Duje Draganje i Janice. Vrijednost mojih uspjeha znali su prepoznati i celni ljudi dubrovackog sporta koji su prije dvije godine prvi put u povijesti proglasili sportasa s

Mihovil Panja

A bronze-medal swimmer:

Mihovil Spanja, a 21-year old youth from Dubrovnik, a winner of three medals at the Paralympic Games in Athens

He swam before learning to walk invaliditetom za najboljeg sportasa Grada u opcoj konkurenciji. Obitelj je, uz trenera Kontica, naglasava, temelj njegovih sportskih uspjeha. Medu one koji su oduvijek vjerovali kako ima potencijala za postignuce neceg velikog ubraja i nekolicinu prijatelja. Upravo te, Mihovilu bliske osobe, najzasluznije su sto mu je po povratku iz Atene prireden velicanstven docek u Cilipima i na Stradunu, kada je sportskog junaka doslo pozdraviti mnostvo Dubrovcana.

He has already fulfilled all of his dreams in sports, and has visited all five of the world continents thanks to his swimming. After adding the three bronzes won at the Paralympic Games in Athens to the medals won at European and world championships, Mihovil Spanja, the 21-year old youth from Dubrovnik, is still swimming. He receives the greatest support from his family. Besides swimming, he is a communications student at the University of Dubrovnik and at the College for Trainers in Zagreb. He believes these studies will be of benefit following his sports career. Of course, he is still young and has no intention of even stopping. He will continue to swim as long as it brings him satisfaction. However, he points out how he would like to remain in sports forever, whether as a trainer or a person who will ensure that future generations receive the best of conditions for top performances, promoting their achievements.

- I am happy that I achieved my dream in sports relatively quickly, climbing onto the Olympic pedestal three times in Athens. It was wonderful to be able to watch my country's flag next to the flags of world powers, such as China, U.S.A. and Australia. Croatia cannot hold any comparison in terms of the investments made in sports and the creation of swimming facilities - as told by Mihovil regarding the biggest success of his career. He points out how he has always set himself high goals in life, and so it is with sports. He has always believed how he could achieve the best medals from the very start of swimming for the national team.

- I started to work with my present trainer, Dean Kontic, six years ago. From the very first day, he kept trying to convince me that I had the talent for great success on the world scene. This is why I was incredibly motivated, and I did everything to prove my potentials in the pool.

Swimming is enormously significant in his life. He swam before he learned how to walk; he swam on his own in the sea at the age of two and a half. - I was diagnosed with poliomelitis, a children's paralysis, at the age of six months. My battle with this illness started the very same day that my parents were told of the diagnosis. The greater part of my

rehabilitation consisted of therapy in pools or in the sea. I signed up for swimming school with Jug at the age of six. At one time, I trained for water polo - my greatest love, which I do in my free time today. Officially, his professional swimming career started in 1998 at the Croatian Open Championships in Rijeka. The same year at an international meeting in Bratislava, he came up with seven medals.

- Ana Srsen, the celebrated and most famous Croatian Paralympic swimmer, convinced me to enter this sport, which is a decision I have never regretted in the least. As a 21-year old, I have been a member of the national team for seven years already, and I can freely say that I have more than just succeeded in this sport.

This year is less hard for Mihovil than the previous one, for there are no major competitions in his calendar, such as the Olympic Games and the World and European Championships.

- I am leaving for the Mediterranean Games in Almeria at the end of June. In September, there is the World Championship in Rio de Janeiro. I plan to close the season with the USA Open Championships in December, where I intend to break a record in at least one of three major disciplines. I am starting to prepare for next year, as I would like to win another medal again at the World Championships.

The numerous awards received over the last years have changed him, but, he adds, in an acceptable measure.

- The awards are proof of how much my successes are esteemed, which makes me very proud. But, they also carry a certain degree of responsibility for me to continue being successful.

The relationship towards a handicapped person in sports has changed significantly in Croatia from when he first started, and for the better, of course.

- We are receiving more media attention and space. This can be demonstrated with the article by the legendary Croatian sports journalist, Boris Mutic, who ranked my success in Athens as being the second highest success of Croatians in the history of the games, side by side with Janice Kostelic and her poker medal at Salt Lake City. Ana Srsen is most certainly the key person responsible for the popularization of handicapped sportsmen. I am proud that she is the one who introduced me to professional swimming, and that today, I am a sportsman al pair to the legends of Croatian sport, such as Duje Draganja and Janica. The key people in the Dubrovnik sporting world recognized the value of my successes. For the first time in history, two years ago, they awarded a handicapped sportsman with the title of the best all round sportsman in the city.

He stresses how his sporting achievements are based on his family and his trainer Kontic. There are also a few friends who have always believed in his potential to achieve greatness. Mihovil's close friends are the ones most responsible for ensuring the fantastic welcome home at the Cilipi airport and on Stradun, when the sports hero was greeted by a multitude of locals.

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